Tag Archives: US labor history

October 3 Peace Love Activism

October 3 Peace Love Activism

FREE SPEECH

October 3, 1915: John Sumner was appointed to replace Anthony Comstock as leader of the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice (NYSSV). He pledged to continue Comstock’s censorship crusade against alleged indecent literature under the 1873 Comstock Act (March 3, 1873), the most important federal censorship law for almost 100 years. The NYSSV was the leading censorship organization from its founding in 1873 through the late 1930s, (see March 3, 1919)

INDEPENDENCE DAYS

Kingdom of Yugoslavia
 October 3, 1929: The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes changed its name to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. (ID, see Dec 11, 1931; Yugoslavia, see June 25, 1991)

Iraq

October 3, 1932: Iraq independent from the United Kingdom. (see November 22, 1943)
Germany
October 3, 1990: Germany reunited. (NYT article) (see April 9, 1991)

October 3 Music et al

Roots of Rock
October 3, 1945: Elvis Presley made his first ever-public appearance in a talent contest at the Mississippi Alabama Dairy Show singing 'Old Shep', Elvis was 10 years old at the time and came second. (see October 5, 1948)
Howl and Other Poems
October 3, 1957: at the conclusion of the obscenity trial regarding Howl and Other Poems, Judge Clayton W. Horn ruled that the poem was not obscene. In his decision, he stated that, “I do not believe that "Howl" is without redeeming social importance. The first part of "Howl" presents a picture of a nightmare world; the second part is an indictment of those elements in modern society destructive of the best qualities of human nature; such elements are predominantly identified as materialism, conformity, and mechanization leading toward war. The third part presents a picture of an individual who is a specific representation of what the author conceives as a general condition.” [Full transcript of decision] [complete Howl] (BG, see April 2, 1958; FS, see Nov 1)

Beatles not breaking up
October 3, 1966: The Beatles' manager Brian Epstein, recently released from hospitalization, denied reports that Paul McCartney was leaving the group. There had been much press speculation during the latter part of 1966 that The Beatles were splitting up. Each of the four members had pursued outside interests after their final concert, with John Lennon filming How I Won The War in Germany and Spain, George Harrison visiting India, and McCartney and Ringo Starr busying themselves in England. Epstein also revealed that Lennon was appearing as Private Gripweed in Richard Lester's film, and that McCartney was composing the music for another movie entitled Wedlocked, or All In Good Time. (see Oct 16)
Woody Guthrie

October 3 Peace Love Activism

October 3, 1967: Woody Guthrie died of complications of Huntington's disease.  NYT obit. (see Oct 6)
Fifth Big Sur Folk Festival

October 3 Peace Love Activism

October 3, 1968: The Fifth Big Sur Folk Festival (Big Sur, see Sept 14 – 15, 1969; Festival, see Oct 26 & 27)
  • Joan Baez
  • Judy Collins
  • Mimi Fariña
  • Arlo Guthrie
  • Charles River Valley Boys
 Seventh Big Sur Folk Festival

October 3 Peace Love Activism

October 3, 1970 – The Seventh Big Sur Folk Festival (held at the Monterey County Fairgrounds) (see Sept 25, 1971)
1:00 pm Concert:
Beach Boys
John Phillips
Joan Baez
Merry Clayton and Love Ltd.Kris Kristofferson (with Chris Gantry and Vince Matthews)
John Hartford
8:00 pm Concert:
Beach Boys
John Phillips
Linda Ronstadt, with Swamp Water
Mimi Fariña & Tom Jans
Mark Spoelstra
Country Joe McDonald
Tom Ghent
Joan Baez

Nuclear/Chemical News

 

October 3, 1952:  the United Kingdom successfully tested its atomic bomb. The test made the UK the world's third nuclear power. (see Oct 13)
October 3 Peace Love Activism

US Labor History

United Auto Workers
October 3, 1961: the United Auto Workers (UAW) union went on strike at Ford plants across the country to win higher wages and better benefits for its members. It was the first company-wide strike since Ford had agreed to a collective-bargaining deal in 1941. (see January 17, 1962)
Major League Umpires Association
October 3, 1970: baseball umpires strike for recognition of their newly-formed Major League Umpires Association, win after one day. (see Dec 29)
Nissan plant
October 3, 2001: the United Automobile Workers lost an election to represent the workers in a Nissan plant in Smyrna, Tennessee. It was one of a series of defeats in attempts to organize the plants of foreign car makers in the U.S. UAW membership continued to slide. (see March 12, 2004)

Immigration History

October 3, 1965: President Lyndon Johnson signed into law the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965. The Act ordered elimination of the national origins quota system established in 1882 in favor of a worldwide quota blind to national origin. Pushed by the American families of European immigrants who wanted to bring relatives over, the Act replaced the nation's tightly controlled, country-of-origin immigration system with a process that divided visas equally between all countries, giving preference to immigrants with advanced skills and education or with family ties to U.S. citizens.

As a result of the Act, the USA, a country that was almost entirely native-born in  1965 changed with a significant foreign-born population; demographic diversity has spread to every region, expanding a black-and-white racial paradigm into a multicolored one. Americans have gleefully adopted musical genres and foods that have immigrant origins, while remaining conflicted and uneasy politically over who's here, legally and not. (see June 15, 1982)

BLACK HISTORY

Frank Robinson
October 3 Peace Love Activism

 

October 3, 1974: the Cleveland Indians hired Frank Robinson as major league baseball's first black manager. (see Oct 30
Medgar Evers assassination
October 3, 1991: a Federal judge in Chattanooga, Tenn., refused to block the extradition of Byron de la Beckwith, sending him back to Mississippi for a third trial in the 1963 slaying of the civil rights leader Medgar Evers. (NYT article) (Evers, see November 13)

Irish Troubles

October 3, 1981:  those Republican prisoners who had still been refusing food decided to end their hunger strike. At this stage in the protest six prisoners were on hunger strike. The prisoners took their decision when it became clear that each of their families would ask for medical intervention to save their lives. (see Oct 6)

Feminism

The League of Women Voters
October 3 Peace Love Activism
October 3, 1988: after The League of Women Voters had sponsored the Presidential debates in 1976, 1980 and 1984, its 14 trustees voted unanimously to pull out of the debates. League President Nancy M. Neuman issued a press release condemning the demands of the major candidates' campaigns:  The League of Women Voters is withdrawing sponsorship of the presidential debates...because the demands of the two campaign organizations would perpetrate a fraud on the American voter. It has become clear to us that the candidates' organizations aim to add debates to their list of campaign-trail charades devoid of substance, spontaneity and answers to tough questions. The League has no intention of becoming an accessory to the hoodwinking of the American public. (see Feb 11, 1989)  NYT article
The Vagina Monologues

October 3 Peace Love Activism

October 3, 1996: The Vagina Monologues was first performed at HERE Arts Center in Soho, New York. Written and originally performed by Eve Ensler, the play is a one-woman show based on a series of interviews Ensler conducted with a diverse group of women who talked freely about womanhood, sex, and their vaginas. (NYT article) (see January 23, 1997)

October 3, 2008, George. Bush signed the revised Emergency Economic Stabilization Act creating a 700 billion dollar Treasury fund to purchase failing bank assets.

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October 1 Peace Love Activism

October 1 Peace Love Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Slave Revolts
October 1, 1851: citizens of Syracuse, N.Y., broke into the city’s police station and freed William Henry (known as Jerry), a runaway slave who had been working as a barrel-maker. A group of black and white men created a diversion and managed to free Jerry, but he was later rearrested. At his second hearing, a group of men, their skin color disguised with burnt cork, forcibly overpowered the guards with clubs and axes, and freed Jerry a second time. He was then secretly taken over the border to Canada. (Slave Revolts, see Oct 16 – 17, 1959; BH, see March 20, 1852)
Elaine, Arkansas

October 1 Peace Love Activism

October 1, 1919: a race riot broke out in Elaine, Arkansas. Black sharecroppers were meeting in the local chapter of the Progressive Farmers and Household Union of America. Planters opposed their efforts to organize for better terms and the sharecroppers had been warned of trouble. A white man intent on arresting a black bootlegger approached the lookouts defending the meeting, and was shot. The planters formed a militia to attack the African-American farmers. In the ensuing riot they killed between 100 and 200 blacks, and five whites also died. (BH, see Oct 11; RR, see May 31 and June 1, 1921; Elaine, see February 19, 1923)
Perez v. Sharp
October 1, 1948: by a 4–3 vote, the California Supreme Court, in Perez v. Sharp, struck down an 1850 state law banning interracial marriage. The case involved Andrea Perez, who was a Mexican-American but classified as “white” by the state at that time, and Sylvester Davis, who was African-American. Reportedly, this was the first time any court in the U.S. had ruled on the issue of racial intermarriage.

The U.S. Supreme Court declared interracial marriage bans unconstitutional in the famous case of Loving v. Virginia on June 12, 1967.

The Court: “In summary, we hold that sections 60 and 69 are not only too vague and uncertain to be enforceable regulations of a fundamental right, but that they violate the equal protection of the laws clause of the United States Constitution by impairing the right of individuals to marry on the basis of race . . . alone and by arbitrarily and unreasonably discriminating against certain racial groups.” (see Dec 10)
James H Meredith

October 1 Peace Love Activism

October 1, 1962: in the fall of 1962, the University of Mississippi was the scene of violent riots in protest of James Meredith’s attempts to enroll as the segregated school’s first black student. In June 1962, after more than a year of litigation, the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit ordered the university to admit Meredith. In response, Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett gave a televised speech on September 13, 1962, vowing to resist integration.

Meredith, a 29-year-old Air Force veteran born in Mississippi, sought to enroll at Ole Miss in September 1962. Governor Barnett, a member of the pro-segregation White Citizen’s Council, personally blocked him the first two times he tried, and sent Lt. Governor Paul Johnson to prevent Meredith’s enrollment a third time. On September 28, 1962, the Fifth Circuit unanimously held Barnett in contempt of court for violating his duty to maintain order and allow Meredith to lawfully enroll.

On September 30, 1962, the next date set for Meredith’s enrollment, mobs had formed on campus and riots raged, killing two people and injuring many others. The following day, October 1, 1962, federal marshals sent by President John F. Kennedy successfully escorted Meredith to enroll as the University of Mississippi’s first black student and accompanied him to his first day of classes.

Mississippi Attorney General Joe Patterson soon instructed university students it was their constitutional right to refuse “to socialize or fraternize with an undesirable student” and unrest continued. Meredith suffered ongoing isolation, harassment, and violence. In October, students rioted and broke university cafeteria windows as Meredith ate there; in December, Meredith’s home was struck by shotgun blasts that nearly injured his teenaged sister and a dead raccoon was left on his car. Nevertheless, Meredith remained and on August 18, 1963, he graduated from the University of Mississippi with a degree in political science. (Black History, see Oct 16; Meredith, see January 20, 1963)
Muhammad Ali
October 1, 1975: Ali defeated Joe Frazier in the “Thrilla in Manila.” It is their third fight, each winning once before. Ali had expected an easy bout, but Frazier takes it to the champ. Ali wins the bout in one of the greatest battles in the history of boxing. (BH, see January 22, 1976; Ali, see September 28, 1976)

Medgar Evers
October 1, 1989: sealed documents from the Mississippi Sovereignty Commission revealed that at the same time that the state of Mississippi prosecuted Byron De La Beckwith in 1964 for the murder of NAACP leader Medgar Evers, another arm of the state, the Mississippi Sovereignty Commission, secretly assisted Beckwith’s defense, trying to get him acquitted. The revelation led the district attorney’s office to reopen and re-prosecute the case against Beckwith. It was the first of a series of prosecutions of unpunished killings from the civil rights era. (see December 17, 1990)

US Labor History

October 1, 1910: LA Times Bombing: an ink storage room in the L.A. Timesbuilding was dynamited during a citywide fight over labor rights and organizing.  The explosion was relatively minor, but it set off a fire in the unsafe, difficult-to-evacuate building, ultimately killing 21.  A union member eventually confessed to the bombing, which he said was supposed to have occurred early in the morning when the building would have been largely unoccupied. (Labor, see Nov 26; LA Times, see December 5, 1911)
October 1 Peace Love Activism

FEMINISM

Voting Rights
October 1, 1918:  U.S. Senate defeated federal woman suffrage amendment by vote of 34 nays to 62 yeas, two votes shy of required two-thirds majority. Amendment’s supporters quickly add it to Senate calendar for reconsideration. (see Oct 7)

The Red Scare, McCarthyism, and the Cold War

October 1 Peace Love Activism

October 1, 1949: Chairman Mao Zedong declared victory in the Chinese Civil War, creating the Communist People's Republic of China. (see Oct 7)

INDEPENDENCE DAYS

October 1, 1960
1) Cyprus independent from United Kingdom

2) Nigeria independent from United Kingdom (see February 25, 1961)

STUDENT ACTIVISIM & FREE SPEECH

October 1 Peace Love Activism

October 1, 1964: the Free Speech Movement was launched at the University of California at Berkeley. Students insisted that the university administration lift the ban of on-campus political activities and acknowledge the students' right to free speech and academic freedom. (see Dec 2)

October 1 Music et al

Jimi Hendrix
October 1, 1966: Cream was playing a show at London Polytechnic. Hendrix asked Eric Clapton if he could jam with them and did playing “Killing Floor” and amazing the audience as well as the members of Cream. (see Dec 26)

Abbey Road

October 1 Peace Love Activism

October 1, 1969: US release of Abbey Road. (see Oct 12)
Side One

Side 2

 

Daniel Ellsberg/Pentagon Papers

October 1, 1969: Daniel Ellseberg, with his Rand Corporation colleague Anthony Russo, began copying the secret Pentagon Papers in Los Angeles on this day. The Papers, which they had obtained while working at the Rand Corporation in Santa Monica, California, had been commissioned by Defense Secretary Robert McNamara in 1967 because of his growing doubts about the Vietnam War. The documents in the Papers revealed the secrets surrounding American involvement in Vietnam that led to the escalation of the war. In one of the major controversies of the Vietnam War, The New York Times published the first stories based on the Papers on June 13, 1971. The Nixon Administration obtained an injunction halting publication by the Times on June 15, 1971. In a landmark case on freedom of the press, New York Times v. United States, the Supreme Court ruled the injunction unconstitutional on June 30, 1971.

Ellsberg and Russo were prosecuted for taking the Pentagon Papers from the Rand Corporation, but in the middle of the trial, on May 11, 1973, the charges were dismissed because of revelations of government misconduct against Ellsberg. The misconduct included the break-in of the office of Ellsberg’s psychiatrist on September 9, 1971, by the “Plumbers” unit of President Nixon’s White House. The purpose of the break-in was to find damaging information about Ellsberg.

One consequence of the dismissal of the charges against Ellsberg and Russo was that with respect to Edward Snowden (June 5, 2013) there is no directly relevant precedent for the criminal prosecution of someone who stole and leaked sensitive government documents. (see DE/PP)

Nuclear/Chemical News

October 1, 1979: The Progressive Magazine on this day published an article by Howard Morland on the hydrogen bomb, which the government claimed revealed the “secret” of how to make the bomb. The government enjoined the publication of that issue (March 9, 1979), but after lengthy legal proceedings finally gave up. Morland maintained that the article only discussed the conceptual aspects of the H-Bomb, with no technical engineering details necessary to make one. And no authority has since claimed that the article contains the “secret” to the H-bomb.

The affair echoed an incredible incident nearly 30 years earlier when government officials, on March 31, 1950, seized and burned all 3,000 copies of the respected magazine Scientific American, because they alleged that an article on atomic energy revealed the “secret” to the atomic bomb. Coming at the height of the Cold War, the incident passed with only very limited news coverage and public protest. (see January 2, 1980)

LGBTQ

Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger
October 1, 1986: the following excerpt from a letter was delivered by Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, Prefect [the future Pope Benedictus XVI] and approved and ordered published by Pope John Paul II: "Although the particular inclination of the homosexual person is not a sin, it is a more or less strong tendency ordered toward an intrinsic moral evil; and thus the inclination itself must be seen as an objective disorder.Therefore special concern and pastoral attention should be directed toward those who have this condition; lest they be led to believe that the living out of this orientation in homosexual activity is a morally acceptable option. It is not." (see March 10, 1987)
Registered Partnership Act
October 1, 1989, LGBTQ: the Registered Partnership Act went into effect in Denmark. It was the first law in the world that allowed civil unions between homosexual couples. (see February 26, 1990)

STAND YOUR GROUND LAW

October 1, 2005: Florida’s “Stand Your Ground” law goes into effect. (see February 26, 2012)

Occupy Wall Street

October 1, 2011, Occupy Wall Street protesters set out to march across the Brooklyn Bridge. The NY Times reported that more than 700 arrests were made. (see Oct 5)

Voting Rights

October 1, 2014:  a federal appeals court ordered a lower court to block two new voting restrictions in North Carolina, saying there was "no doubt" the measures would disenfranchise minorities. North Carolina would be required to reinstate same-day voter registration, as well as allow voters to cast ballots even if they show up to vote in the wrong precinct.

In a two-to-one ruling, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 4th Circuit ruled that "whether the number is thirty or thirty-thousand, surely some North Carolina minority voters will be disproportionately adversely affected in the upcoming election" and that it was important to act now, since "there could be no do-over and no redress" once the election was over. (VR, see Oct 9; North Carolina, see April 6, 2015)

Environmental Issues

October 1, 2015: the Obama administration unveiled a major new regulation on smog-causing emissions that spew from smokestacks and tailpipes, significantly tightening the current Bush-era standards but falling short of more stringent regulations that public health advocates and environmentalists had urged.

The Environmental Protection Agency et the new national standard for ozone, a smog-causing gas that often forms on hot, sunny days when chemical emissions from power plants, factories and vehicles mix in the air, at 70 parts per billion, tightening the current standard of 75 parts per billion set in 2008. Smog has been linked to asthma, heart and lung disease, and premature death. (see Nov 6)

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