Tag Archives: Today in History

October 19 Peace Love Activism

October 19 Peace Love Activism

BILL OF RIGHTS

October 19, 1765: The Stamp Act Congress, meeting in New York, drew up a declaration of rights and liberties. (see December 15, 1791)

Emma GoldmanOctober 19 Peace Love Activism

October 19, 1890: Goldman spoke in Baltimore to members of the International Working People's Association in the afternoon. She later spoke in German to the Workers' Educational Society at Canmakers' Hall. Michael Cohn and William Harvey also spoke. (see July 23, 1892)

BLACK HISTORY

NAACP a “threat”
October 19, 1955: the Attorney General of Georgia on this day called the NAACP a “threat” to the state, charging “subversion” in its anti-segregation drive. The civil rights organization was a “threat to the peace, tranquility, government and way of life of our states,” he added. (see Oct 21)
March to Montgomery
October 19, 1965: State Attorney General, Richmond M Flowers, interrupted the second Liuzzo trial and asked the Alabama Supreme Court to purge some jurists, a number of whom stated during jury selection that they believed white civil rights workers to be inferior to other whites. The request was denied. (see Oct 20)

The Cold War

October 19, 1960: the United States imposed an embargo on exports to Cuba. (NYT article) (see January 3, 1961)

October 19 Music et al

Simon & Garfunkel

October 19 Peace Love ActivismOctober 19, 1964: Simon & Garfunkel released Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. Initially a flop, but after release of their second album, Sounds of Silence in 1966, it hit #30 on the Billboard charts. (see post for more)

Vietnam  

October 19, 1969: Vice President Spiro T. Agnew referred to anti-Vietnam War protesters "an effete corps of impudent snobs." (NYT article) (see Nov 3)

Oil embargo

October 19, 1973: President Nixon requested Congress to appropriate $2.2 billion in emergency aid for Israel. Libya, Saudi Arabia and other Arab states proclaim an embargo on oil exports to the United States. (NYT article)

TERRORISM

October 19, 1987: two U.S. warships shelled an Iranian oil platform in the Persian Gulf in response to Iran's Silkworm missile attack on the U.S. flagged ship MV Sea Isle City. (see Nov 29)
October 19 Peace Love Activism

Iraq War II

October 19, 2003:  a yearlong State Department study predicted many of the problems that have plagued the American-led occupation of Iraq, according to internal State Department documents and interviews with administration and Congressional officials. [NYT, 10/19/03] (see Dec 13)

Marijuana

Ogden memo
October 19, 2009: the Department of Justice issued a memo, known subsequently as the Ogden memo, to "provide clarification and guidance to federal prosecutors in States that have enacted laws authorizing the medical use of marijuana."  In an effort to make the most efficient use of limited resources, the DOJ announced that prosecutorial priorities should not target "individuals whose actions are in clear and unambiguous compliance with existing state laws providing for the medical use of marijuana." Specifically, individuals with cancer or other serious illnesses who use medical marijuana and the caregivers who provide the medical marijuana in accordance with state law should not be the focus of federal prosecution.

The memo clarified that "prosecution of commercial enterprises that unlawfully market and sell marijuana for profit continues to be an enforcement priority." It is also explicitly stated that the memo "does not 'legalize' marijuana or provide a legal defense to a violation of federal law." (see Nov 10)
Medical marijuana
October 19, 2015: medical marijuana dispensaries scored a major win when Senior District Judge Charles R. Breyer ruled that the Department of Justice cannot prosecute legal providers of medical cannabis.

In his ruling, Breyer lifted an injunction against a California dispensary, the Marin Alliance for Medical Marijuana, and its founder, Lynette Shaw, ruling that a budget amendment Congress approved last year requires the federal government to respect state marijuana laws. The DOJ is thus precluded from criminally prosecuting organizations like MAMM that comply with state regulations. (see Nov 9)
Legalizing marijuana
October 19, 2016: according to a Gallop poll, public support for legalizing marijuana use reached 60% -- the highest level since Gallop began the poll in 1969. (see July 5 – 9, 2017)

LGBTQ

October 19, 2010: US Federal Judge Virginia Phillips said y that she was inclined to deny the government’s request to allow the Pentagon to enforce its “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy on gay and bisexual members of the military while her injunction against it is being appealed. “My tentative ruling is to deny the application for a stay,” Judge Virginia A. Phillips said at a hearing on the government’s request, (IH, see Oct 20; Ramirez, see June 1, 2011)

Stop and Frisk Policy

October 19, 2011: New York City called for a federal probe of the NYPD's stop and frisk strategy. Speaking at a news conference Manhattan Borough President Scott Stringer and state Senator Eric Adams said federal prosecutors needed to step in to protect the rights of minorities.

By December 2011 police had stopped 684,330 New Yorkers  [402,308 were black (59 percent); 176,165 were Latino (26 percent); 62,033 were white (9 percent)] (see Feb 8, 2012)

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September 27 Peace Love Activism

September 27 Peace Love Activism

US Labor History

Feminism

September 27 Peace Love Activism

September 27, 1909: New York shirtwaist strike of 1909, also known as the Uprising of the 20,000, was a labor strike primarily involving Jewish women working in New York shirtwaist factories. Led by Clara Lemlich and supported by the National Women's Trade Union League of America (NWTUL). (Labor, see Nov 22; Feminism see Jan 2, 1910)
Change to Win
September 27, 2005: the Service Employees International Union (SEIU), the Teamsters, and other activist unions leave the AFL-CIO to form a new labor coalition called Change to Win. The move represents a new emphasis on organizing workers to bring them into a labor movement starved for members. (January 2, 2006)

Emma Goldman

September 27, 1919: Goldman posted bond and was released from federal prison. She left for Rochester, NY, knowing she would soon receive deportation orders. NYT article. (see Dec 1, 1919)

BLACK HISTORY

Gary Indiana School Desegregation
September 27, 1927: in Gary Indiana, the crowd swelled to about 800 students. Superintendent Wirt hedged his bets by telling the angry crowd that “possibly when a new black school was erected on the east side, Emerson would be again segregated.” (see Sept 28)
A Philip Randolph
September 27, 1940:  civil rights leader A. Philip Randolph met with President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the White House to demand racial integration of the U.S. Armed forces. Congress had created a draft in response to the outbreak of war in Europe, which was to take effect on October 16, 1940. The law contained a provision prohibiting race discrimination, but Randolph felt the military was not honoring it. The meeting with Roosevelt did not go well, and afterwards the administration issued a false report that Randolph had accepted the president’s plan, for which it quickly had to apologize.

U.S. armed forces remained segregated during World War II. Winfred Lynn’s challenge to the segregated draft was unsuccessful (see December 4, 1942; February 3, 1944). (see Nov 13)

School Desegregation
SEPTEMBER 27, 1958: following the Supreme Court's 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision, school boards across the country were ordered to draft desegregation plans. The school board in Little Rock, Arkansas, drafted a plan and agreed to implement it during the 1957-1958 school year. When nine black students, known as the Little Rock Nine, made their way to Central High School as part of Arkansas’s gradual desegregation plan, they were met by angry crowds and the Arkansas National Guard blocking their entry. Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus encouraged the protesters and did everything in his power to hinder integration. Eventually, President Dwight Eisenhower deployed federal troops to Arkansas and commanded the Arkansas National Guard to escort the students to school.

Not yet through with his attempts to thwart integration, Faubus devised another plan. Following the 1957-1958 school year, the Little Rock School Board petitioned for a delay in the implementation of its desegregation plan. A federal district judge granted a delay until 1961, which the NAACP promptly appealed. The case made its way to the Supreme Court where, on September 12, 1958, the Court ordered immediate integration.

By that time, the Arkansas Legislature had passed a law allowing Governor Faubus to close public schools and later hold a special election to determine public support. Immediately after the Supreme Court released its decision, the governor ordered all four public high schools closed pending a public vote. On September 27, 1958, the people of Arkansas voted overwhelmingly (19,470 to 7561) to keep the schools closed rather than integrate. The schools would remain closed for the entire 1958-1959 academic term, known as “the lost year.” (BH, see Oct 14; SD, see Oct 25)
James H Meredith
September 27, 1962: a fourth attempt to enroll. Meredith in the University of Mississippi was canceled after it became evident that his life would be endangered. (see September 28, 1962)
Medgar Evers
September 27, 1973: New Orleans police arrested Byron De La Beckwith who had a bomb and several rifles in his car. He stated he had come to New Orleans to sell china. Police stated that De La Beckwith intended to blow up the home of A I Botnick, head of the New Orleans chapter of B’nai B’rith. It was the first day of Rosh Hashanah. Botnick had moved his family out of New Orleans several days earlier after receiving threatening calls. (see Oct 11)
Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act
September 27, 2007: the Senate passed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act  as an amendment to another bill. President George W Bush indicated he would veto the legislation if it reached his desk. The amendment was dropped by the Democratic leadership because of opposition from conservative groups and President George Bush, and due to the measure being attached to a defense bill there was a lack of support from antiwar Democrats. (LGBTQ, see Nov 8; BH, see March 26, 2008; Shepard, see April 2, 2009)

Religion and Public Education

September 27, 1948: Circuit Judge Grover Watson ordered the Champaign school board to stop all religious education in all public school buildings. NYT article (see Nov 20, 1948)

Environmental Issues

September 27 Peace Love Activism

September 27, 1962: Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring published. The book is widely credited with helping to launch the contemporary American environmental movement. The New Yorker magazine had started serializing Silent Spring in June 1962. Rachel Carson was already a well-known writer on natural history, but had not previously been a social critic. The book was widely read—especially after its selection by the Book-of-the-Month Club and the New York Times best-seller list—and inspired widespread public concerns with pesticides and pollution of the environment. Silent Spring facilitated the ban of the pesticide DDT[3] for agricultural use in 1972 in the United States. NYT article (see Dec 7)

JFK Assassination

September 27 Peace Love Activism

September 27, 1964: the report of the Warren Commission chaired by Chief Justice Earl Warren on the Kennedy assassination was released. The report essentially concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald had acted alone. (see October 5, 1966)
September 27 Peace Love Activism

Vietnam

September 27 Peace Love Activism

September 27, 1967: an advertisement headed "A Call To Resist Illegitimate Authority," signed by over 320 influential people (professors, writers, ministers, and other professional people), appeared in the New Republic and the New York Review of Books, asking for funds to help youths resist the draft.

A Call to Resist Illegitimate Authority” was one of the most powerful and important indictments of the Vietnam War by the anti-war movement. It declared that “the war is unconstitutional and illegal. Congress has not declared a war as required by the Constitution.” Additionally, “this war violates international agreements, treaties and principles of law which the United States Government has solemnly endorsed.” The Call was published in the New York Review of Books, The Nation, and other publications. (see Sept 29)

Sexual Abuse of Children

September 27, 2004: Bishop Thomas Dupre was indicted on child rape charges, becoming the first bishop to face charges in the church sex abuse scandal. Dupree was the head of the Springfield, Mass., diocese, but resigned in February after the allegations came to light. His two alleged victims have said Dupre sexually abused them for years in the 1970s and asked them to keep quiet about the abuse when he was made auxiliary bishop in 1990. (NYT article) (see Nov 15)

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September 25 Peace Love Activism

September 25 Peace Love Activism

Technological Milestone

September 25 Peace Love Activism

September 25, 1956: the first trans-Atlantic telephone cable went into service. (see August 3, 1958)

BLACK HISTORY

School Desegregation

September 25 Peace Love Activism

September 25, 1957: in a dramatic and unprecedented move, President Dwight Eisenhower sent federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas, to ensure the racial integration of Central High School. The Little Rock crisis was one of the most dramatic events in the history of the civil rights movement.

Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus and local authorities had resisted integration in the face of a court order to implement the Supreme Court’s Brown v. Board of Education decision on May 17, 1954. Mobs had prevented the enrollment of nine African-American students (the “Little Rock Nine”) on September 23, as local authorities failed to maintain public order. Central High School was successfully integrated on this day because of the federal troops.

In 1958, however, local officials resisted another court order, and that issue resulted in a landmark Supreme Court decision asserting the authority of the federal courts to enforce lawful court orders, Cooper v. Aaron, on September 12, 1958. Nonetheless, the Little Rock school board (which was not directly affected by the court decision) voted to close the schools rather than integrate, and the 1958–1959 academic year is known as the “lost year.” The schools opened the following year. (BH & SD, see Oct 5; Central High School, see February 9, 1960)
Herbert Lee murdered

September 25 Peace Love Activism

September 25, 1961: E.H. Hurst – a local white state legislator – shot and killed Herbert Lee in front of several eyewitnesses. Mr. Lee was a member of the Amite County, Mississippi, NAACP and worked with Bob Moses of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) on a voter registration drive. Louis Allen, a black man who witnessed the murder, was initially coerced into saying that Hurst killed Herbert Lee in self defense; he later recanted and said Hurst had actually shot Lee for registering black voters.

Louis Allen spoke with the FBI about Lee’s murder, but told federal authorities that he would need protection if he were to agree to cooperate in their investigation. The FBI refused to provide protection, and Allen did not testify against Hurst. However, news spread in the local community that Allen had spoken with federal investigators.

Beginning in 1962, Mr. Allen was targeted for harassment and violence: local whites cut off business to his logging company; he was jailed on false charges; and on one occasion, Sheriff Daniel Jones broke Allen’s jaw with a flashlight. The son of a high ranking local Klansman, Sheriff Jones was suspected to also be a member of the Ku Klux Klan. Louis Allen filed complaints and testified before a federal grand jury regarding the abuse he suffered at the hands of Sheriff Jones, but his claims were dismissed.. (BH, see May 5, 1962; Lee, see Jan 31, 1964)
St. Matthew’s Baptist Church burned down
September 25, 1962: a pre-dawn fire at St. Matthew's Baptist Church destroyed the building. It was the fifth black church to burn in the past month. (BH, see Sept 25; Albany, see Nov 18)
James H Meredith
September 25, 1962: Mississippi Governor Ross R Barnett’s responded with two proclamations. To sheriffs and law enforcement officers:  They were “authorized and directed to proceed to do all things necessary that the peace and security of the people of the State of Mississippi are fully protected.” The second, directed at Meredith stated in part that “in order to prevent violence and a breach of the peace...do hereby and finally deny you admission to the University of Mississippi.” (see September 26, 1962)
Johnnie May Chappell
September 25, 1964:  soon after obtaining the confessions (see Aug 11), detectives Cody and Coleman were ordered to stop their investigation. Afterwards, Cody was not sure anything else was done to develop the case, but on this date a grand jury indicted all four men on the evidence in the murder of Johnnie May Chappell.

J.W. Rich was the first to go on trial. He says now that the prosecution didn’t have anything on him. It’s true that the case may have looked slim to a jury. The .22-caliber gun that Cody and Coleman recovered was never introduced at trial (it later disappeared from the evidence room). Cody himself wasn’t called to testify. The other men’s statements weren’t submitted in court. The bullet taken from Chappell’s body was introduced in a plain white envelope, not an evidence bag showing the date it had been recovered and from where. Perhaps unwilling to press for a first-degree murder charge in the death of a black woman, the prosecutor told jurors they could find Rich guilty on a lesser count. The jury found him guilty of manslaughter and the judge gave Rich 10 years. He would serve 3.

The State Attorney’s Office released Wayne Chessman, Elmer Kato, and Alex Davis from prosecution for lack of evidence, despite their confessions. (BH, see Oct 14; Chappell, see December 4, 2002)

The Cold War

Eisenhower/Khrushchev

September 25 Peace Love Activism

September 25, 1959: Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev met with President Eisenhower. The two men came to general agreement on a number of issues, but a U-2 spy plane incident in May 1960 crushed any hopes for further improvement of U.S.-Soviet relations during the Eisenhower years. (NYT article) (see May 1)
Nuclear/Chemical News
September 25, 1962: Soviet Union above ground nuclear test. 19.1 megaton. (see Sept 27)
see The Beatles cartoon series for more
September 25, 1965: a cartoon series featuring The Beatles began in the US. Simply titled The Beatles, it ran until 1969 on the ABC network with 39 episodes produced over three seasons. The series was shown on Saturday mornings at 10.30am until 1968, when it was moved to Sunday mornings. Each episode was named after a Beatles song, with stories based on the lyrics. The Beatles themselves were not directly involved in the production, which was created by Al Brodax and Sylban Buck, and produced by King Features Syndicate. American actor Paul Frees provided the voices for John Lennon and George Harrison, while British actor Lance Percival did the same for Paul McCartney and Ringo Starr. (see Oct 9)

Eve of Destruction
September 25 – October 1, 1965: “Eve of Destruction” by Barry McGuire #1 on the Billboard Hot 100. (see Sept 30)

Eighth Big Sur Folk Festival
September 25, 1971:  the final one featured: Joan Baez, Kris Kristofferson, Mimi Fariña and Tom Jans, Mickey Newbury, Big Sur Choir, Lily Tomlin & Larry Manson

U2
September 25, 1976: the Irish rock band U2 formed after drummer Larry Mullen Jr. posted a note seeking members for a band on the notice board of his Dublin school.
September 25 Peace Love Activism

Feminism

September 25, 1981: Sandra Day O'Connor became the first woman appointed to the Supreme Court. (see Nov 12)

Irish Troubles

Maze Prison escape
September 25, 1983: 38 Irish republican prisoners, armed with six handguns, hijack a prison meals lorry and smash their way out of HMP Maze, in the largest prison escape since World War II and in British history. (see Dec 17)
 
Irish Republican Army
September 25, 2005:  two months after announcing its intention to disarm, the Irish Republican Army (IRA) gave up its weapons in front of independent weapons inspectors. The decommissioning of the group s substantial arsenal took place in secret locations in the Republic of Ireland. One Protestant and one Catholic priest as well as officials from Finland and the United States served as witnesses to the historic event. Automatic weapons, ammunition, missiles and explosives were among the arms found in the cache, which the head weapons inspector described as "enormous." (see June 15, 2010)

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