Tag Archives: Terrorism

November 25 Peace Love Activism

November 25 Peace Love Activism

BLACK HISTORY

TERRORISM
November 25, 1915: a cross was burned on Stone Mountain, Georgia, on this day, marking the revival of the Ku Klux Klan in the early 20th century. The Klan had been a powerful racist force during the Reconstruction Era in the South following the Civil War. It gradually faded away, but was revived as part of the racist mood of the country in the first decades of the century. (see November 7, 1922)
Anti-Lynching Congress
November 25, 1930: a delegation from the Anti-Lynching Congress, which was meeting in Washington, D.C., delivered a protest to President Herbert Hoover, demanding that he take action to end the lynching of African-Americans. The group was led by Maurice W. Spencer, president of the National Equal Rights League and Race Congress. President Hoover did not respond.

Herbert Hoover was basically sympathetic to the needs of African-Americans in American society, but was not willing to expend any political capital on civil rights. He was very upset, for example, when Southern bigots protested when First Lady Lou Henry Hoover invited the wife of African-American Congressman Oscar DePriest to the White House for tea (along with all the other Congressional wives), on June 12, 1929. He responded by inviting Robert Moton, President of Tuskegee University, to the White House in a symbolic gesture.  (BH see Nov 22; T, see August 27, 1949)
Interstate Commerce Commission
November 25, 1955: the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), the federal agency that regulated railroads and other transporters of goods, banned racial segregation on interstate buses, train lines, and in waiting rooms. The ICC ruled that “the disadvantages to a traveler who is assigned accommodations or facilities so designated as to imply his inferiority solely because of his race must be regarded under present conditions as unreasonable.” The ban was consistent with a 1946 United States Supreme Court decision, Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia (see June 3, 1946), which held that a state law requiring segregation on interstate buses traveling through the state was unconstitutional.

However, neither the Supreme Court decision nor the ICC ban covered intrastate travel, and 13 states still required segregation on buses and railways that traveled exclusively within state borders. Some of these states ignored the new ban on segregated interstate travel and continued to enforce unconstitutional laws. According to a report issued by the Public Affairs Research Committee in December 1957, police in Flomaton, Alabama, had been called to arrest African Americans traveling in the white section of an interstate railroad line. The report additionally found that employees of rail and bus lines in Alabama “have flagrantly segregated colored travelers or called police to arrest those who would not easily be intimidated where their rights were involved.”

It was not until November 1961, six years after the ICC ban, that it was given force by order of the ICC and Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, largely spurred by the Freedom Rides. (NYT article)(see Dec 1)
Randolph Evans
November 25, 1976, Thanksgiving Day: NYC police officer Robert Torsney fired a bullet into the head of Randolph Evans, 15, outside a housing project in Brooklyn. Officer Torsney would later claim he had been afflicted with a rare form of epilepsy that had never been noticed before the killing and was never seen after it. The ''epilepsy'' defense worked. A jury acquitted Torsney of any criminal wrongdoing. (NYT article) (see Dec 17)
Black & Shot: Sean Bell
November 25, 2006: a team of plainclothes and undercover NYPD officers shot a total of 50 times at three men killing one of the men, Sean Bell, on the morning before his wedding, and severely wounding two of his friends.  (NYT article) (B & S and Sean Bell, see March 16, 2007)
Black Lives Matter
November 25, 2015: Minneapolis police released the names of four men arrested in connection with a shooting during a Black Lives Matter protest outside a police station that injured five protesters. The authorities identified the suspects in the shooting as Allen Lawrence Scarsella, 23; Nathan Gustavsson, 21; Daniel Macey, 26; and Joseph Backman, 27. All were white. (see Dec 2)

FREE SPEECH

November 25, 1930: an agent of the New England Watch and Ward Society purchased a copy of Lady Chatterly's Lover at the Dunster House Book shop in Cambridge, Massachusetts. James Delancy, the manager, and Joseph Sullivan, his clerk, were both convicted of selling obscene literature, a crime for which Mr. Delancy was fined $800. and assigned four months in the house of corrections while Mr. Sullivan was sentenced to two weeks in prison and a $200. fine. (see April 6, 1931)

US Labor History

St Paul teacher strike
November 25, 1946: teachers strike in St. Paul, Minn., the first organized walkout by teachers in the country. The month-long “strike for better schools” involving some 1,100 teachers—and principals—led to a number of reforms in the way schools were administered and operated. (see Dec 3)
“Harvest of Shame”
November 25, 1960: CBS broadcast the documentary, “Harvest of Shame,” on US migrant farm workers the day after Thanksgiving. Journalist Edward R. Murrow narrates, opening with these words over footage of workers: "This is not taking place in the Congo. It has nothing to do with Johnannesburg or Cape Town. It is not Nyasaland or Nigeria. This is Florida. These are citizens of the United States, 1960. This is a shape-up for migrant workers. The hawkers are chanting the going piece rate at the various fields. This is the way the humans who harvest the food for the best-fed people in the world get hired. One farmer looked at this and said, 'We used to own our slaves. Now we just rent them.' " The hour-long telecast, shocking to many viewers, immediately leads to a greater public and political awareness of the workers' lives. (see October 3, 1961) 

Religion and Public Education

November 25, 1947: the American Unitarian Association announced that it had received permission from the US Supreme Court to enter the McCollum v Champaign case. Its brief stated that the religious group “has an interest in the the proceedings by reason of the nature of the questions involved, the absolute separation of church and state being one of the cardinal principles of Unitarianism.” (see Dec 4, 1947)

Red Scare

Hollywood Ten
November 25, 1947: movie studio executives agreed to blacklist the Hollywood 10, who were jailed for contempt of Congress for failing to cooperate with the House Un-American Activities Committee. (Hollywood Ten: see June 13, 1949; Red Scare, see Dec 4)
Blacklisted Michael Wilson
November 25, 1956: the film Friendly Persuasion, starring Gary Cooper and later nominated for the Academy Awards for Best Picture, Best Director, and Best Supporting Actor, was released on this day — but without any screenwriter credit. The actual screenwriter was Michael Wilson, who had been blacklisted for refusing to cooperate with the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) in September 1951. Hollywood motion picture companies refused to hire or credit people who did not cooperate with HUAC. The official blacklist began on December 3, 1947.

Wilson’s screenwriting credit was restored in later versions of the film. Wilson also co-wrote the script for the award-winning Bridge on the River Kwai (1957), but was not listed on the credits. Wilson was posthumously awarded an Academy Award in 1995 for his work on the Bridge on the River Kwai.

Wilson took his revenge for having been blacklisted when he wrote the script for Planet of the Apes (1968), which includes a scene that is a wicked parody of the House Un-American Activities Committee. In the scene, Charlton Heston has to stand naked and testify before what is, in effect, an Un-Ape Activities Committee.(see February 18, 1957)
The Cold War
November 25, 2016: Cuban state television announed the death of Fidel Castro. He was 90. (see January 12, 2017)

November 25 Music et al

The Beatles
November 25, 1963: release of Beatlemania! With The Beatles album in Canada. (see Nov 29)
Incense and Peppermints
November 25 – December 1, 1967: “Incense and Peppermints” by the Strawberry Alarm Clock #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.

Last Waltz

November 25, 1976, Thanksgiving Day, at the Winterland Ballroom in San Francisco, The Band gave their farewell concert. They called it "The Last Waltz." More than a dozen speicial guests joined The Band, including Paul Butterfield, Eric Clapton, Neil Diamond, Bob Dylan, Emmylou Harris, Ronnie Hawkins, Dr. John, Joni Mitchell, Van Morrison, Ringo Starr, Muddy Waters, Ronnie Wood, Bobby Charles, Neil Young, and the Staple Singers. The musical director for the concert was The Band's original record producer, John Simon.

The event was filmed by director Martin Scorsese and made into a documentary of the same name, released in 1978. The film features concert performances, scenes shot on a studio soundstage and interviews by Scorsese with members of The Band. A triple-LP soundtrack recording, produced by Simon and Rob Fraboni, was issued on April 7, 1978.

The Last Waltz is hailed as one of the greatest concert films ever made.
Band Aid
November 25, 1984: Band Aid recorded the charity single "Do They Know It's Christmas?" to raise money to combat the famine in Ethiopia. It is released December 3. (see January 28, 1985)

INDEPENDENCE DAY

November 25, 1975, Suriname independent of Netherlands.

Nuclear/Chemical News

November 25, 1969, President Nixon ordered all US germ warfare stockpiles destroyed. (see March 5, 1970)

AIDS

November 25 Peace Love Activism

November 25, 1985: the Indiana Department of Education ruled that Ryan White must be admitted despite parent and government opposition. (see Dec 17)
November 25 Peace Love Activism

 Iran–Contra Affair

November 25, 1986: the Iran-Contra affair erupted as President Reagan and Attorney General Edwin Meese revealed that profits from secret arms sales to Iran had been diverted to Nicaraguan rebels. (see Nov 26)

Jack Kevorkian

November 25, 1998: Michigan charged Kevorkian with first-degree murder, violating the assisted suicide law and delivering a controlled substance without a license in the death of Thomas Youk. Prosecutors later drop the suicide charge. Kevorkian insists on defending himself during the trial and threatens to starve himself if he is sent to jail. (see March 26, 1999)

Terrorism

John Phillip Walker Lindh

November 25 Peace Love Activism

November 25, 2001: John Phillip Walker Lindh, a US citizen, was captured as an enemy combatant during the invasion of Afghanistan. (Terrorism, see Dec 11; Walker, see July 15, 2002)
Department of Homeland Security
November 25, 2002: President Bush signed legislation creating the Department of Homeland Security. (see Dec 11)
Mohammed Hamdi al-Ahdal

November 25 Peace Love Activism

November 25, 2003: Yemen arrested Mohammed Hamdi al-Ahdal, a top al-Qaida member suspected of masterminding the 2000 bombing of the USS Cole and the 2002 bombing of a French oil tanker off Yemen's coast. (see April 5, 2004)

LGBTQ

Arkansas’ gay marriage ban
November 25, 2014, : U.S. District Judge Kristine Baker struck down Arkansas' gay marriage ban, which paved the way for county clerks to resume issuing licenses. Baker ruled in favor of two same-sex couples who had challenged a 2004 constitutional amendment and earlier state law defining marriage as between a man and a woman, arguing that the ban violated the U.S. Constitution and discriminated based on sexual orientation.
Mississippi’s ban on gay marriage
November 25, 2014: U.S. District Judge Carlton Reeves ruled against Mississippi’s constitutional amendment banning same-sex couples from marrying.  Attorney Roberta Kaplan represented two plaintiff couples on behalf of Campaign for Southern Equality, arguing that Mississippi’s marriage ban violates the U.S. Constitution. (see Dec 18)

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Virgil Ware Johnny Robinson

Virgil Ware Johnny Robinson

Vergil Ware
Virgil Ware Johnny Robinson
December 6, 1949 – September 15, 1963
Johnny Robinson

Virgil Ware Johnny Robinson

1947 – September 15, 1963

September 15, 1963

16th Street Baptist Church bombing

The story of the terrorist attack on the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham,  Alabama is a well-known one.  

Bobby Frank Cherry, Thomas Blanton, Herman Frank Cash, and Robert Chambliss, members of United Klans of America, a Ku Klux Klan group, planted a box of dynamite with a time delay under the steps of the church near the basement. At about 10:20 that morning, twenty-six children were walking into the basement assembly room to prepare for the sermon entitled “The Love That Forgives,” when the bomb exploded.

The explosion killed four girls, Addie Mae Collins (14), Denise McNair (11), Carole Robertson (14), and Cynthia Wesley (14) and injured the other 22, one of whom was Addie Mae Collins' younger sister, Sarah. 

The explosion blew a hole in the church's rear wall, destroyed the back steps and all but one stained-glass window, which showed Christ leading a group of little children.

It was 14 years before officials charged anyone. In 1977 Chambliss was tried and convicted of the first degree murder of McNair. 

Not until 2001 was Thomas Blanton convicted and not until 2002 Bobby Cherry. Both were convicted of four counts of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment.

Herman Cash died in 1994 and  was never charged.

Virgil Ware Johnny Robinson

Virgil Ware

The evening of that same day Virgil Ware and his 16-year-old brother, James Jr, were out on a bike. Virgil on the handlebars, James peddling. 

Two white 16-year-olds, Michael Lee Farley and Larry Joe Sims were also out. They were riding a motorbike. Seeing the two boys, Farley encouraged Sims to shoot at and scare the brothers. Ware fell. The brothers did not stop. 

The shots had hit Virgil Ware in the chest and face. He died there.The next day, police  confronted Sims who confessed to shooting Ware, saying he had done so accidentally, as he had fired with his eyes closed. 

Authorities charged Sims and Farley with first-degree murder.At trial, a jury convicted Sims of second-degree manslaughter; Farley pled guilty to the same charge. They were both sentenced to seven months in jail, but a judge then altered the penalty, giving them two years' probation instead.

Johnny Robinson

In the hours after the bombing, groups gathered to mourn the killings or celebrate them. 16-year-old Johnny Robinson was hanging around with a few other black teenagers near a gas station on 26th Street. White kids drove by, waving Confederate flags and throwing things out of the car windows. 

Robinson and some of his friends threw rocks back. Police showed up.

Witnesses told the FBI in 1963 that Johnny was with a group of boys who threw rocks at a car draped with a Confederate flag. The rocks missed their target and hit another vehicle instead. That's when a police car arrived.

Robinson ran. Officer Jack Parker, sitting in the back of a police car with a shotgun, shot at the running Robinson, hit him in the back, and killed him. 
Police said that their car's sudden stop caused Parker's gun to go off or that the car had hit a bump causing the discharge. Witnesses say they no warnings and two shots. 

Parker was a member of the  Fraternal Order of Police lodge. That fall he signed an ad in the newspaper arguing against integration of the police force. He died in 1977.

In 1963, the grand jury that tried Parker, refused to indict him.  A federal grand jury decided the same thing in 1964.

Virgil Ware Johnny Robinson,  Virgil Ware Johnny Robinson,  Virgil Ware Johnny Robinson,  Virgil Ware Johnny Robinson,  Virgil Ware Johnny Robinson,  Virgil Ware Johnny Robinson,  Virgil Ware Johnny Robinson, 

 
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November 13 Peace Love Activism

November 13 Peace Love Activism

Women’s Health

Margaret Sanger
November 13, 1921,  Birth Control: the first national birth control conference in the U.S. (see Nov 11) was scheduled to end with an event featuring several speakers, but it was abruptly ended when New York City police intervened and removed Margaret Sanger and one other speaker from the stage. Sanger was arrested on charges of disorderly conduct. The New York Time's article headline was: A mass meeting to discuss "Birth Control: Is It Moral?" was broken up by the police at the Town Hall last night. Hundreds of men and women, many socially prominent, derided the police and urged the speakers to defy the order not to speak. (NYT article) (see Nov 18)

Black History

Scottboro Travesty
November 13, 1935: Creed Conyer becomes the first post-Reconstruction black person to sit on an Alabama grand jury in the remanded case. (see Scottsboro Travesty for full story)
Hansberry v. Lee
November 13 Peace Love Activism
Whites only housing
November 13, 1940: the US Supreme Court ruled in Hansberry v. Lee that whites cannot bar African Americans from white neighborhoods. (University of North Carolina site)
US Involvement in World War II
1941 – 1945: African-American soldiers played a significant role in World War II. More than half a million served in Europe. Despite the numbers they faced racial discrimination: prior to the war the military maintained a racially segregated force. In studies by the military, blacks were often classified as unfit for combat and were not allowed on the front lines. They were mostly given support duties, and were not allowed in units with white soldiers.

That changed in 1941, when pressure from African-American civil rights leaders convinced the government to set up all-black combat units, as experiments. They were designed to see if African-American soldiers could perform military tasks on the same level as white soldiers. (BH, see Jan 14)
Browder v. Gayle
November 13 Peace Love Activism
le
November 13, 1956: the US Supreme Court declined the appeal of a US District Court ruling in Browder v. Gayle that had declared unconstitutional Alabama's state and local laws requiring segregation on buses, thereby ending the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The Court affirmed a ruling by a three-judge Federal court that held the challenged statutes "violate the due process and equal protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States." (BH, see Dec 4; MBB, see Dec 19)
Medgar Evers
November 13, 1991: Jackson, Miss. Judge L. Breland Hilburn of Hinds County Circuit Court denied bond to Byron De La Beckwith and ordered him to remain in jail pending his third murder trial in the 1963 slaying of the civil rights leader Medgar Evers. (see August 4, 1992)

Cold War

Mrs White bans Communist Robin Hood
November 13 Peace Love Activism
Obama as Robin Hood
November 13, 1953: Mrs. Thomas J. White of the Indiana Textbook Commission, called for the removal of references to the book Robin Hood from textbooks used by the state's schools. Mrs. Young claimed that there was "a Communist directive in education now to stress the story of Robin Hood because he robbed the rich and gave it to the poor. That's the Communist line. It's just a smearing of law and order and anything that disrupts law and order is their meat." She went on to attack Quakers because they "don't believe in fighting wars." This philosophy, she argued, played into communist hands. (Mrs Thomas White's anti-Robin Hood campaign)
Get That Communist, Joe
In 1954: the Kavaliers sang “Get That Communist, Joe” in which they poked fun at McCarthy’s passion to find Communists everywhere.  (see Jan 8)
Joe, come here a minute

I get a red hot tip for you, Joe

See that guy with the red suspenders

Driving that car with the bright red fenders

I know he’s one of those heavy spenders

Get that Communist Joe

He’s fillin’ my gal with propaganda

And I’m scared she will meander

Don’t want to take a chance that he’ll land her

Get that Communist Joe

He’s a most revolting character

And the fellas hate him so

But with the girls this character

Is a Comrade Romeo

Since my love he’s sabotaging

And the law he has been dodging

Give him what he deserves, jailhouse lodging

Get that Communist Joe (Get that Shmo, Joe)

Fourth Amendment, United States v. Jeffers

November 13, 1951: United States v Jeffers. Without a warrant, two police officers had entered a District of Columbia hotel room rented to the aunts of Anthony Jeffers when neither they nor Jeffers were present. The police searched the room and seized 19 bottles of cocaine and one bottle of codeine. Jeffers claimed ownership of the contraband and was charged and convicted of violating narcotics laws in a District Court despite his motion to suppress the evidence seized without a warrant as a violation of the Fourth Amendment. The Court of Appeals reversed the conviction and the Supreme Court agreed to hear the case.

In affirming the ruling of the Court of Appeals, Justice Clark held that the warrantless seizure did violate the Fourth Amendment and that the narcotics should have been excluded as evidence at Jeffers trial. Justice Clark wrote "The search and seizure were not incident to a valid arrest; and there were no exceptional circumstances to justify their being made without a warrant."

The Government had argued in this case that no property rights within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment existed in the seized narcotics because they were contraband as declared by Congress in 26 U.S.C. 3116. Justice Clark dismissed their argument, holding that, for purposes of the exclusionary rule, it was property and that Jeffers was entitled to motion to have it suppressed as evidence at trial but that, because it was contraband, he was not entitled to have it returned to him. (Unlawful evidence) (see January 2, 1952)
see November 13 Music et al for more
The Beatles
November 13, 1964: CBS TV shows a 50-minute documentary, “What’s Happening! The Beatles in the U.S.A.,” filmed by Albert Maysles, covering the Beatles U.S. tour and other activities that year. (see Nov 23)
Sound of Music
November 13 –26, 1965, the Sound of Music soundtrack is the Billboard #1 album.
Yellow Submarine
November 13, 1968: US release of Yellow Submarine movie. (see Nov 21)

Vietnam

Spiro T. Agnew

November 13 Peace Love Activism

November 13, 1968: speaking in Des Moines, Iowa, Vice President Spiro T. Agnew accused network television news departments of bias and distortion, and urged viewers to lodge complaints. (see Dec 31)
March Against Death

November 13 Peace Love Activism

November 13, 1969: in Washington, as a prelude to the second moratorium against the war scheduled for the following weekend, protesters staged a symbolic "March Against Death." The march began at 6 p.m. and drew over 45,000 participants, each with a placard bearing the name of a soldier who had died in Vietnam. The marchers began at Arlington National Cemetery and continued past the White House, where they called out the names of the dead. The march lasted for two days and nights. This demonstration and the moratorium that followed did not produce a change in official policy--although President Nixon was deeply angered by the protests, he publicly feigned indifference and they had no impact on his prosecution of the war. (NYT article) (see Nov 15)
Vietnam Veterans Memorial

November 13 Peace Love Activism

November 13, 1982: the Vietnam Veterans Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C. (NYT article on memorial) (see May 7, 1984)
November 13 Peace Love Activism

TERRORISM

November 13 Peace Love Activism

November 13, 1995: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a car bomb exploded at the U.S. military headquarters, killing 5 U.S. military servicemen. From the New York Times, More than 20 American investigators and hundreds of Saudi security officials searched the rubble of an American-run military training center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia today, looking for clues to the bombing that killed six people, including five Americans. (NYT article)(see June 25, 1996)

Sexual Abuse of Children

November 13, 2002:  Roman Catholic activists from the Survivors First group launch an online database listing 573 US priests accused of involvement in pedophilia since 1996, later dropping 100 of the names. (see Dec 3)

Stop and Frisk Policy

November 13, 2013: a three-judge panel of the 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Manhattan refused to reconsider its order removing federal Judge Shira Scheindlin from court cases challenging the New York Police Department's stop-and-frisk policy. Scheindlin’s attorney, Burt Neuborne, had filed papers asking the panel to reconsider the order and saying the appeals judges had offended due process by ousting her without letting her defend herself. The panel denied Neuborne's request, saying it lacked a procedural basis. "We know of no precedent suggesting that a district judge has standing before an appellate court to protest reassignment of a case," the judges ruled. (S & F, see Nov 14; ruling, see Nov 22)

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