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October 31 Peace Love Activism

October 31 Peace Love Activism

October 31 Peace Love Activism

Labor history

Working Man’s Advocate
October 31, 1829: George Henry Evans published the first issue of the Working Man’s Advocate, “edited by a Mechanic” for the “useful and industrious classes” in New York City. He focused on the inequities between the “portion of society living in luxury and idleness” and those “groaning under the oppressions and miseries imposed on them.” (see March 13, 1830)
Coal Creek War
October 31, 1891: during the spring of 1891, free miners working for the Tennessee Coal Mining Company went on strike in Briceville, Tennessee, after the company demanded that all miners sign an iron-clad contract with draconian terms. In response to the strike, the company evicted the miners from their homes, built a stockade, and leased dozens of state prisoners to replace the free workers. Using convict labor, the mine reopened on July 5, 1891.

Two weeks later, on July 14, three hundred armed miners stormed the stockade and marched the convicts out of the valley, shutting down the mine once more. In response, Governor John P. Buchanan marched the state militia into the valley and, on July 16, met the miners just north of Briceville to plead for peace. The miners refused to accept the mining company’s treatment, and instead demanded that the governor enforce the state’s laws against iron-clad contracts.

When the miners seized control of the Briceville mine again, on July 20, Governor Buchanan requested a 60-day truce so that he could present the miners’ claims to the Tennessee legislature. The legislature subsequently rejected the miners’ demands, and tensions flared once more.

On October 31, 1891, the miners stormed the Briceville mine and burned the stockades to the ground, freeing more than 500 leased convicts and placing them on trains headed out of the Coal Creek Valley. Free miners in other towns soon followed suit; the conflict spread across the Cumberland Plateau and lasted several months until the militia launched a crackdown in the summer of 1892, leading to the arrests of hundreds of miners. Known as the “Coal Creek War,” this clash ultimately brought about the miners’ goal: the Tennessee legislature abolished convict leasing to private companies on January 1, 1894.

While the free miners no longer had to compete with convict labor, the Coal Creek War did not end the practice of forcing state convicts – mostly “able bodied young colored men” – to labor in mines. Instead, convicts were now shipped to Brushy Mountain and forced to mine coal for the state of Tennessee. By 1904, the state claimed $200,000 per year in profits from convict labor.  (see January 7, 1892)
October 31 Music et al
Quarry Men
October 31, 1959: Quarry Men auditioned for Carrol Levis Show in Liverpool. During this audition period, the band would change its name from "Quarry Men" to "Johnny and the Moondogs" by November 15. On that day, they lose out for the Carrol Levis finals. (see Nov 15)
Five years later…
October 31, 1963:  The Beatles were trying to walk through Heathrow Airport, London, where they'd just returned from a successful tour of Sweden. Also at Heathrow that particular day, after a talent-scouting tour of Europe, was the American television impresario Ed Sullivan. The pandemonium that Sullivan witnessed as he attempted to catch his flight to New York would play a pivotal role in making the British Invasion possible. Sullivan had his staff make inquiries about the Beatles following his return to the United States, and Brian Epstein arranged to travel to New York to open negotiations.
Nice ‘n’ Easy
October 31 – November 6, 1960: Frank Sinatra’s Nice ‘n’ Easy Billboard #1 album.
“Baby Love”
October 31  - November 27, 1964: “Baby Love” by the Supremes #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.
People
October 31 – December 4, 1964: Barbara Streisand’s People is the Billboard #1 album.
LSD
October 31, 1966:  San Francisco, California (Acid Test Graduation at Winterland) (see Nov 30)

Cold War  & Nuclear News

October 31, 1961, : Soviet Union above-ground nuclear test. 5 megaton. (NYT article) (see Dec 1)

Americans with disabilities

Community Mental Health Act
October 31, 1963: The Community Mental Health Act of 1963 (CMHA) (also known as the Community Mental Health Centers Construction Act, Mental Retardation Facilities and Construction Act, Public Law 88-164, or the Mental Retardation and Community Mental Health Centers Construction Act of 1963) was an act to provide federal funding for community mental health centers. This legislation was passed as part of John F. Kennedy's New Frontier. It led to considerable deinstitutionalization. In 1984 it was renamed the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act. (see Nov 2)
TTY
In 1964 in California, deaf orthodontist Dr. James C. Marsters of Pasadena sent a teletype machine to deaf scientist Robert Weitbrecht, asking him to find a way to attach the TTY to the telephone system. Weitbrecht modified an acoustic coupler and gave birth to "Baudot," a code that is still used in TTY communication. (ADA, see July 2, 1964; TM, see April 30)

BLACK HISTORY

see George Whitmore, Jr for full story
October 31, 1964: police disclosed that they were questioning another unidentified suspect in the Wylie-Hoffert case. The suspect was identified as a white 19-year-old narcotics addict who had a record of burglary and sexual assault. (Evidently the suspect was Richard Robles, although Robles is not 19 but in his early 20s. 
Jacksonville, FL race revolt
October 31, 1969: a race revolt in Jacksonville, FL. The trouble started when a white truck driver accused a 20-year-old black man of stealing from his truck. The white man shot the black man, triggering two hours of violence and looting.  Windows were smashed and TV sets, furniture and appliances were stolen, with losses estimated at $125,000. Three vehicles were burned. Two people were injured by gunfire and a policeman was struck by a brick.  The police arrested 11 people - 10 of them were charged not with vandalism or looting but with using profanity and failing to obey police officers. A teenager was charged with looting, but rather than calming matters, that arrest led to the gathering of an angry crowd that didn't disperse until four squad cars arrived. (BH, see February 21, 1970; RR, see May 11, 1970) (NYT article)
October 31 Peace Love Activism

Vietnam & LBJ

October 31 Peace Love ActivismOctober 31, 1968: President Lyndon B. Johnson ordered a halt to all U.S. bombing of North Vietnam, saying he hoped for fruitful peace negotiations. (NYT article) (see Nov 1)

FREE SPEECH & Pledge of Allegiance

October 31, 1969: two 12-year-old girls in Brooklyn went to court on this day to assert their right to remain seated in class while other students recited the Pledge of Allegiance. One of the students, Mary, said she refused to recite the pledge because she doesn’t believe that “the actions of this country at this time warrant my respect.” (The Vietnam War was still raging at this time.) The seventh graders had been suspended four weeks earlier in what the school board’s attorney described as a simple matter of school discipline and not one of First Amendment law. Allowing the girls to remain seated, he claimed, would be “disruptive.”

The girls were represented by lawyers for the New York Civil Liberties Union, who cited the famous Supreme Court case of West Virginia v. Barnette, decided on June 14, 1943, in which the Court upheld the right of Jehovah’s Witness’s children not to salute the American flag as required by their school.(FS, see March 18, 1970; Pledge, see June 27, 2002)

Native Americans

October 31, 1972: The Trail of Broken Treaties was a twenty-point manifesto adopted by Native American activists at a meeting in Minneapolis, Minnesota, on this day. The twenty points/demands included a Commission to Review Treaty Commitments & Violations, and that All Indians to be Governed by Treaty Relations. (link to manifesto) (see Nov 2)

Feminism

Pregnancy Discrimination Act
October 31 Peace Love ActivismOctober 31, 1978: The Pregnancy Discrimination Act amended Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, making it unlawful for an employer to discriminate on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions. (see Dec 4)
Women’s Health
October 31, 2013:  a federal appeals court ruled that the part of a Texas anti-abortion law that was struck down by a district court would be allowed to take effect while legal challenges proceed. The provisions will cause at least one-third of the state's licensed health centers that currently provide abortion to stop offering the service immediately. (BC, see Nov 4; Texas, see June 27, 2016)

Stop and Frisk Policy

Fourth Amendment
October 31, 2013: the US Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit ruled that Judge Scheindlin “ran afoul” of the judiciary’s code of conduct by showing an “appearance of partiality surrounding this litigation.” The panel criticized how she had steered the lawsuit to her courtroom when it was filed in early 2008. The ruling effectively puts off a battery of changes that Judge Scheindlin, of Federal District Court in Manhattan, had ordered for the Police Department. Those changes include postponing the operations of the monitor who was given the task to oversee reforms to the department’s stop-and-frisk practices, which Judge Scheindlin found violated the Fourth and 14th Amendments of the Constitution. (see November 6)

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October 24 Peace Love Activism

October 24 Peace Love Activism

Technological Milestone

October 24, 1861:  the first transcontinental telegraph message was sent from California to President Abraham Lincoln. (see July 27, 1866)

US Labor History

October 24, 1940: the 40-hour work week went into effect in the United States.  (NYT article)

In 1941: union membership of employed workers exceeded 20% (20.3%) for the first time in US history. (see Feb 3)

In 1954: Union membership reached 28.3%  of employed workers. The highest in history. (see Sept 2)

In 1975: Union membership declined to 19.5% of employed workers. The first time it fell below 20% since 1942. (see Feb 19)

United Nations

October 24, 1945, the UN Charter, signed on June 26, 1945, formally entered into force.

Vietnam

South Vietnam Leadership
October 24, 1954: President Eisenhower wrote to South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem and promised direct assistance to his government. Eisenhower made it clear to Diem that U.S. aid to his government during Vietnam's "hour of trial" was contingent upon his assurances of the "standards of performance [he] would be able to maintain in the event such aid were supplied. Eisenhower called for land reform and a reduction of government corruption. 

Diem agreed to the "needed reforms" stipulated as a precondition for receiving aid, but he never actually followed through on his promises. Ultimately his refusal to make any substantial changes to meet the needs of the people led to extreme civil unrest and eventually a coup by dissident South Vietnamese generals in which Diem and his brother were murdered. (NYT article) (Vietnam, see February 23, 1955; SVL, see April 27, 1955) 
Johnson in Manila
October 24, 1966:  in Manila, President Johnson met with other Allied leaders and they pledged to withdraw troops from Vietnam within six months if North Vietnam "withdraws its forces to the North and ceases infiltration of South Vietnam." A communiqué signed by the seven participants (Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, South Vietnam, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States) included a four-point "Declaration of Peace" that stressed the need for a "peaceful settlement of the war in Vietnam and for future peace and progress" in the rest of Asia and the Pacific. After the conference, Johnson flew to South Vietnam for a surprise two-and-a-half-hour visit with U.S. troops at Cam Ranh Bay. ( Johnson statements) (see Nov 7)
WAR POWERS ACT
October 24, 1973: President Nixon vetoed the War Powers Act. (see Nov 7)

FREE SPEECH

October 24, 1955: based on a Broadway play, The Moon is Blue was a light comedy film that not only used the word “virgin” but also made fun of a young woman for remaining a virgin. The film was released without a seal of approval by the Hollywood Production Code Administration, thus marking an early challenge to the production code system of censorship. It was unclear whether it was because of the word “virgin” or because it made fun of virginity. On this day, the U.S. Supreme Court, in Holmby v. Vaughn, overturned a decision by the Kansas Supreme Court and ended a ban on the film in the state.

The Kansas State Board of Review had originally banned the film, citing “too frank bedroom dialogue” and “many sexy words.” The Supreme Court ruled that the Kansas interpretation of the term obscene was unconstitutionally vague.The Court based is per curium decision on its decision in Burstyn v. Wilson, May 26, 1952), which held for the first time that movies were a form of expression protected by the First Amendment. (see January 12, 1956)

October 24 Music et al

“I Want to Be Wanted”
October 24 – November 13, 1960: “I Want to Be Wanted” by Benda Lee #1 Billboard Hot 100. She was 15-years-old. (Whatever happened to Brenda Lee?)
 
LSD
October 24, 1968: possession of LSD banned federally in the U.S. after the passage of the Staggers-Dodd Bill (Public Law 90-639) which amended the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (see January 31, 1970)
October 24 Peace Love Activism

The Cold War

Cuban Missile Crisis

October 24 Peace Love Activism

October 24, 1962: the Soviet news agency Telegrafnoe Agentstvo Sovetskogo Soyuza (TASS) broadcasted a telegram from Khrushchev to President Kennedy, in which Khrushchev warned that the United States' "pirate action" would lead to war. President John F. Kennedy spoke before reporters during a televised speech to the nation about the strategic blockade of Cuba, and his warning to the Soviet Union about missile sanctions. (see Cuban Missile Crisis)

INDEPENDENCE DAY

ctober 24 Peace Love Activism

October 24, 1964:  Zambia independent from United Kingdom. (see February 18, 1965)

see Calvin Graham for full story

October 24, 1977: a People magazine article reported that Graham, 47, was unable to work, had spent some $5,000 on dental repairs, and suffered from diabetes, and heart trouble. As a result of a fall from a pier while serving in the Marines he walked only with a cane. He and his wife existed on $600 a month—part of which came from limited Marine disability payments. (see April 20, 1978)

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October 15 Peace Love Activism

October 15 Peace Love Activism

FEMINISM

Voting Rights

October 15 Peace Love Activism

October 15, 1872:  Virginia Minor tried to register to vote for the upcoming election, but was refused by St. Louis' sixth district registrar, Reese Happersett. Happersett refused to register Minor because she was female, thus provoking a civil suit brought by Virginia and her lawyer husband, Francis Minor. Minor's action was part of a nation-wide pattern of civil disobedience, in which hundreds of women across the country attempted to vote. (see Nov 5)
Against Our Will

October 15 Peace Love Activism

October 15, 1975:  journalist and historian Susan Brownmiller published Against Our Will: Men, Women, and Rape. The book addressed social, political, and historical attitudes toward rape as well as the longstanding legal inequalities between men and women. Brownmiller is the first to use the term "date rape." (see Jan 1, 1976)
Roman Catholic Church

October 15 Peace Love Activism

October 15, 1976: the Roman Catholic Church’s Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued a Declaration on the Question of the Admission of Women to the Ministerial Priesthood which concluded that for various doctrinal, theological, and historical reasons, the church "... does not consider herself authorized to admit women to priestly ordination." The most important reasons stated were first, the church's determination to remain faithful to its constant tradition, second, its fidelity to Christ's will, and third, the idea of male representation due to the "sacramental nature" of the priesthood. (see February 2, 1977)
Malala Yousafzai
October 15, 2012: the Pakistani schoolgirl who was shot by the Taliban last week for advocating girls’ education arrived in Britain for emergency specialist care. She was transported from Rawalpindi, Pakistan on an air ambulance sent from the United Arab Emirates to Britain, where she would undergo emergency specialist care. (see November 27)

BLACK HISTORY

Civil Rights Cases
October 15, 1883: in the Civil Rights Cases [a group of five similar cases consolidated into one issue] the Supreme Court held that Congress lacked the constitutional authority under the enforcement provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment to outlaw racial discrimination by private individuals and organizations, rather than state and local governments.

More particularly, the Court held that the Civil Rights Act of 1875, which provided that "all persons within the jurisdiction of the United States shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges of inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement; subject only to the conditions and limitations established by law, and applicable alike to citizens of every race and color, regardless of any previous condition of servitude" was unconstitutional.

The 8-1 decision by Justice Joseph P. Bradley,the Court  held that the language of the 14th Amendment, which prohibited denial of equal protection by a state, did not give Congress power to regulate these private acts, because it was the result of conduct by private individuals, not state law or action, that blacks were suffering. (see July 10, 1890) (NYT civil rights decision)
MARTIN LUTHER KING
October 15, 1963: the FBI circulated a report on alleged Communist influence in the civil rights movement that had as its major focus an attack on Dr. Martin Luther King. The report was so biased and racist that it alarmed members of President John Kennedy’s administration, who ordered that all copies be withdrawn two weeks later, on October 28. Assistant Attorney General Burke Marshall later told the Senate Church Committee (January 27, 1975) that the report was “a personal diatribe . . . a personal attack without evidentiary support . . . .” Assistant FBI Director Alan Belmont had described the report as “good reading,” conceding that it “may startle the Attorney General [Robert F. Kennedy].” (BH, see Oct 22; MLK, see Dec 23)
Black Panthers

October 15, 1966: in  the wake of the assassination of Malcolm X (Feb 21, 1965) and of Watts riots (Aug 11- 15, 1965) and at the height of the civil rights movement led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale wrote the first draft of the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense (BPP) 10 - Point Program.

Point #1:

We Want Freedom. We Want Power To Determine
 The Destiny Of Our Black Community.

We believe that Black people will not be free until we are able to determine our destiny.

(full statement) (BH, see Oct 29; Black Panthers, see  Nov 30)
SOUTH AFRICA/APARTHEID
October 15, 1989: the government freed eight of the country’s most prominent political prisoners, including Walter Sisulu, 77, a mentor to Mr. Mandela and his close friend, in a gesture that was widely seen as a trial run for Mandela’s release. (see February 2, 1990)
Separate Amenities Act
October 15, 1990: South Africa's Separate Amenities Act, which had barred blacks from public facilities for decades, was scrapped. (see June 17, 1991)
1993 Nobel Peace Prize

October 15 Peace Love Activism

October 15, 1993: Mandela and de Klerk shared the Nobel Peace Prize. The two men accept the award with the strained grace that characterized their relationship, and Mandela declined to repeat his much-quoted assessment of de Klerk as a man of integrity. (see Nov 18)
Murders of Civil Rights Workers Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner
October 15, 2013: the U.S. Supreme Court said it would consider arguments from a former Ku Klux Klansman Edgar Ray Killen who was convicted in the 1964 slayings of three civil rights workers. Killen said he was denied constitutional rights in his Mississippi trial.

He made the same arguments to a federal judge in Mississippi in 2012 and before the 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in New Orleans earlier this year. He lost in both courts. The Mississippi attorney general's office said that it had notified the Supreme Court that no response to Killen's petition would be filed. (BH & Murders, see Nov 4)

US Labor History

October 15, 1914: President Woodrow Wilson signed the Clayton Antitrust Act—often referred to as "Labor’s Magna Carta"—establishing that unions are not "conspiracies" under the law. It for the first time freed unions to strike, picket and boycott employers. In the years that followed, however, numerous state measures and negative court interpretations weakened the law. (see January 12, 1915) (NYT Clayton bill signed)

FREE SPEECH

“Don’ts and Be Carefuls”
October 15, 1927: almost from the time motion pictures appeared there were strong social and political pressures to censure their treatment of sexuality. In the 1920s, Hollywood made several efforts to head off official censorship through voluntary self-censorship efforts. The list of “Don’ts and Be Carefuls,” issued on this day, was one part of that effort. The list prohibited “pointed profanity,” including the use of “God,” “Jesus,” “hell,” “damn,” and others; trafficking in drugs; miscegenation; “suggestive nudity;” scenes of actual child birth; and “willful offense to any nation, race, or creed.” The “be carefuls,” included use of the flag; use of firearms; “attitude toward public characters and institutions;” rape or attempted rape; “first night scenes” [presumably the] first night of marriage; surgical operations; “excessive or lustful kissing;” surgical operations; and others.

The “Don’ts and Be Carefuls” were voluntary and had little impact. Many of the early talkies (which were just beginning to develop in 1927) in the 1930–1933 years were pretty racy. Under pressure from a Catholic-led boycott of “objectionable” films, Hollywood, on June 13, 1934, adopted the infamous 1934 Production Code, which put a heavy hand of censorship on Hollywood until the late 1960s. (see November 25, 1930)
Nazis in America
October 15, 2005: a riot broke out in Toledo, Ohio provoked by the plans of a group of neo-Nazis to march through a predominantly black neighborhood.  CBS News report (see Dec 20)

Japanese Internment Camps

October 15, 1943: at the Tule Lake Segregation Center internment camp in  California – which held over 18,000 Japanese Americans during World War II – a truck carrying agricultural workers tips over, resulting in the death of an internee. Ten days later, the agricultural workers went on strike; the internment camp director fired all of the workers and brought in strikebreakers from other internment camps. After several outbreaks of violence, martial law was declared and 250 internees were arrested and incarcerated in a newly constructed prison within the prison. (see December 17, 1944)

October 15 Music et al

Beatles in recording studio
October 15, 1960: in a small Hamburg recording studio, the Akustik, The Beatles (minus Pete Best) and two members of Rory Storm's Hurricanes (Ringo Starr and Lou "Wally" Walters) recorded a version of George Gershwin's "Summertime", which is cut onto a 78-rpm disc. This was the first session that included John, Paul, George, and Ringo together. Two other songs were recorded, but Ringo played on those without John, Paul, or George. Nine discs were cut, but only one is known to have survived.  (see Nov 1)
Four Tops
October 15 - 28, 1966: “Reach Out I’ll Be There” by the Four Tops #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.
October 15, 1967 the first Sacramento Pop Festival took place which featured Spirit, Jefferson Airplane, Nutty Gritty Dirt Band, Strawberry Alarm Clock and Sunshine Company. (see May 18 – 19, 1967)
October 15 Peace Love Activism, 

Vietnam

DRAFT CARD BURNING
October 15, 1965: after draft card burning was made illegal, David Miller, a Catholic pacifist, became the first person to publicly burn his draft card to protest the Vietnam War (although in truth it may well have been simply the first draft card-burning incident to be widely publicized). Anti-war demonstrations were held in 40 cities, with a combined attendance of 100,000 people. (Draft Card, see Oct 18)
Marry Pranksters
October 15, 1965 : among that day’s protests, the Vietnam Day Committee organized a sit in at the San Francisco State College, which saw a performance by Country Joe and the Fish. The Merry Pranksters attended and Ken Kesey spoke. (Vietnam, see Oct 16; LSD see November 21)
Peace Day

October 15 Peace Love Activism

October 15, 1969: Peace Day. 500,000 protesters nationwide. First Vietnam Moratorium. Pete Seeger sings “Give Peace a Chance,” a song he originally didn’t think much of but afterwards said, “The high point of the afternoon came...when a short phrase from a record by Beatle John Lennon was started up...” (see Oct 19)
October 15 Peace Love Activism

IRAQ

October 15, 1994: Iraq withdrew troops from its border with Kuwait. (see August 31, 1996)

Voting Rights

October 15, 2014:  Arkansas' highest court struck down a state law that required voters to show photo identification before casting a ballot, ruling the requirement unconstitutional.

The state Supreme Court upheld a lower court ruling that determined the law unconstitutionally added a requirement for voting. The high court noted that the Arkansas Constitution lists specific requirements to vote: that a person be a citizen of both the U.S. and Arkansas, be at least 18 years old, and be lawfully registered. Anything beyond that amounts to a new requirement and is therefore unconstitutional, the court ruled. (see March 23, 2015)

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