Tag Archives: Japanese internment

Japanese Internment Korematsu v United States

Japanese Internment Korematsu v United States

Korematsu vs United States
Fred Korematsu in the 1940s

Executive Order No. 2537


On January 14, 1942,  President Roosevelt had issued order No. 2537, requiring Italian, German, and Japanese aliens to register with the Department of Justice. (NYT article) and on February 19, 1942, President Roosevelt issued  Order 9066, which cleared the way for the relocation of Japanese Americans to internment camps.

Three categories


The government created three categories of Japanese internees: Nisei (native U.S. citizens of Japanese immigrant parents), Issei (Japanese immigrants), and Kibei (native U.S. citizens educated largely in Japan).

Japanese Internment Korematsu v United States

By June, the government had relocated more than 110,000 Japanese Americans to camps scattered around the country. During the war the government convicted 10 Americans of spying for Japan, None were of Japanese ancestry.

Japanese Internment Korematsu v United States

Japanese American Fred Korematsu, 23, refused to go to the the incarceration camp. He was arrested and convicted of defying the government’s order. He appealed.


71 years ago today, December 18, 1944, the US Supreme court, in Korematsu vs United States, sided with the government ruling that the exclusion order was constitutional.

Aftermath


With today’s often bitter discussions about who is American and who we should allow in the United States, it might be interesting to look at the aftermath of Korematsu vs the United States.


32 years after Korematsu vs United States, on February 19, 1976, President Gerald Ford signed “An American Promise,” which formally rescinded 1942’s Executive Order 9066 but contained no apology.

Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians Act

36 years after Korematsu vs United States, on  July 31, 1980, President Carter signed the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians Act, which created a group to study Executive Order 9066. In 1983, the Commission  concluded that the exclusion, expulsion, and incarceration of Japanese-Americans were not justified by military necessity and the decisions to do so were based on race prejudice, war hysteria, and a failure of political leadership.


39 years afterwards, on November 10, 1983, the San Francisco Federal District Court reversed Korematsu’s 1942 conviction and ruled that the internment was not justified.  (Court Overturns… (Korematsu)


44 years afterwards, on August 10, 1988 President Reagan signed the Civil Liberties Act of 1988. It provided for a Presidential apology and appropriated $1.25 billion for reparations of $20,000 to most internees, evacuees, and others of Japanese ancestry who lost liberty or property,


46 years after Korematsu vs United States,  October 9, 1990, the  Japanese internment redress payment was issued at a Washington, D.C. ceremony to the Reverend Mamoru Eto, 107 years old. Attorney General Dick Thornburgh knelt as he made the presentation

Presidential Medal of Freedom


On January 15, 1998, President Clinton awarded Fred Korematsu the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

Japanese Internment Korematsu v United States


55 years after Korematsu vs United States, on October 22, 1999,  groundbreaking on construction of a national memorial to both Japanese-American soldiers and those sent to internment camps takes place in Washington, D.C.Japanese Internment Korematsu v United States


On March 30, 2005, Fred Korematu died. (>>> NYT articleKorematsu vs United States

Tule Lake Segregation Center


Korematsu vs United States
Tulle Lake Center

62 years after Korematsu vs United States, on February 17, 2006, the government designated Tule Lake Segregation Center a National Historic Landmark.

Don Miyada

Korematsu vs United States
Don Miyada with high school diploma

70 years afterward, on June 19, 2014, Don Miyada, 89, joined Newport (CA) Harbor High School’s 2014 graduating class on stage and received a standing ovation. He became an inaugural member of the school’s hall of fame. Miyada had missed his 1942 graduation because he was locked in an internment camp.

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November 10 Peace Love Activism

November 10 Peace Love Activism

Black History

Nat Turner
November 10, 1831: Nat Turner hung.
Underground Railroad
From 1831–1862 the Underground Railroad helped approximately 75,000 slaves escape to the North and to freedom . The so-called railroad was a system in which free African American and white "conductors," abolitionists and sympathizers helped guide and shelter the escapees. (Slave Revolts, see in July 2, 1839)
Dred Scott
In 1832 Scott’s owner, Peter Blow, died. (Scott's full story)
Jeremiah Reeves
November 10, 1952: Jeremiah Reeves, a 16-year-old black high school student and jazz drummer, was arrested in Montgomery, Alabama, and interrogated about the rape of Mabel Ann Crowder the previous July. Ms. Crowder, a white woman, had claimed rape after she and was discovered in her home having sex with Jeremiah – sex many in the black community suspected was part of a consensual, ongoing affair. Within minutes of his arrest, Jeremiah was taken to Kilby Prison where, during “questioning” by police, he was strapped into the electric chair and told that he would be electrocuted unless he admitted committing all of the rapes of white women reported that summer. The fearful boy soon confessed to the charges against him. Alabama executed him on March 8, 1958. (BH, see Dec 30; JR, see December 6, 1954)
Marcus Garvey
November 10, 1964: Garvey’s body was returned to Jamaica. The following day he was declared the country's first national hero. He is buried in the Marcus Garvey Memorial, National Heroes' Park, Kingston, Jamaica. (see Nov 14)
Rainey Pool murder
November 10 – 13, 1999: James “Doc” Caston, Charles Ernie Caston, and Hal Spivey Crimm had a joint jury trial in the Circuit Court of Humphreys County, Mississippi, the Honorable Jannie M. Lewis, presiding, for the death of Pool. Doc, Charles and Crimm were convicted of manslaughter by an unanimous jury.   All three men were sentenced to serve a term of twenty (20) years in the custody of the Mississippi Department of Corrections. (see Dec 9)
Murders of Three Civil Rights Workers
November 10, 2014: President Barack Obama announced 19 recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, including James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner, the three civil rights workers killed by the KKK, on June 21, 1964 in Mississippi.

"From activists who fought for change to artists who explored the furthest reaches of our imagination; from scientists who kept America on the cutting edge to public servants who help write new chapters in our American story, these citizens have made extraordinary contributions to our country and the world," he said. (see Dec 17) 

Feminism

Voting Rights
November 10 November 10
November 10, 1917: large picket demonstration held to protest treatment of Alice Paul and other suffrage prisoners. Thirty-one pickets arrested, including Dora Lewis and just-released-from-prison Lucy Burns. Pickets sentenced to varying terms at Occoquan Workhouse; Burns receives harshest penalty of six months. (see Nov 15)
Malala Yousafzai

November 10

November 10, 2013: in a decision announced by All Pakistan Private Schools Federation President Mirza Kashif, Malala Yousufzai’s recent book I am Malala will be banned in all schools across the country due to its ‘controversial’ content. In order to justify the decision, Mr. Kashif stated that the reason behind the ban is to avoid any confusion that the book may cause for students. It bears mentioning that the decision was taken by the private school owners; the government remained neutral toward the development. Furthermore, Mr. Kashif said that the book had little to do with the curriculum in schools and therefore should not be included in the syllabus. (see Nov 20)

Free Speech

November 10, 1919:  the US Supreme Court ruled in Abrams v. United States that the federal government could criminalize free speech if it was of a type tending to bring about harmful results, in this case resistance to the United States war effort. In a powerful dissenting opinion, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes countered that even during wartime, free speech could only be curtailed when there was clear and "present danger of immediate evil or an intent to bring it about." (Abrams v. United States)(see March 23, 1920)

Vietnam

Robert McNamara
November 10, 1964: at a news conference, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara said that the US had no plans to send combat troops into Vietnam. When asked whether the US intended to increase its activities in Vietnam, he replied, "Wait and see." (see Dec 19)
No combat fatalities
November 10, 1970: for the first time in five years, no U.S. combat fatalities in Southeast Asia were reported for the previous week. (see Nov 17)
Vietnam Veterans Memorial
November 10, 1982: the newly finished Vietnam Veterans Memorial was opened to its first visitors in Washington, D.C. (see Nov 13)

Japanese Internment Camps

November 10, 1983: the 1944 challenge that Fred Korematsu brought regarding the Japanese internment and that the Supreme Court sided with the government in Korematsu v. United States ruling that the exclusion order was constitutional, in response to a petition of error coram nobis (“error before us”) by Fred Korematsu, the San Francisco Federal District Court reversed Korematsu’s 1942 conviction and rules that the internment was not justified. (NYT article) (see August 10, 1988)

Kate Smith, God Bless America

November 10, 1938, Kate Smith first sang Irving Berlin's "God Bless America" on network radio.

Technological and Cultural Milestone

Direct-dial phone call
November 10, 1951: direct-dial, coast-to-coast telephone service began with a call between the mayors of Englewood, N.J., and Alameda, Calif. (coast to coast telephone service) (see Dec 20)

November 10

Sesame Street
November 10, 1969: "Sesame Street" made its broadcast debut. The show was the brainchild of Joan Ganz Cooney, a former documentary producer for public television. Cooney's goal was to create programming for preschoolers that was both entertaining and educational. She also wanted to use TV as a way to help underprivileged 3- to 5- year-olds prepare for kindergarten. (see January 1, 1970)
November 10 Peace Love Activism

Space Race

November 10, 1968: Zond 6 followed its predecessor's trajectory around the moon and returns with a "skip" reentry, bouncing once off the Earth's atmosphere to reduce the G-forces acting upon the contents. Two more Zond flights will follow in 1969 but they will all be unmanned. (see Dec 21 – 27)

Ken Kesey

November 10, 2001:  Ken Kesey died in a hospital in Eugene, Ore. He was 66 and lived in Pleasant Hill, Ore. The cause was complications after surgery for liver cancer late last month, said his friend and business associate, Ken Babbs. (see April 29, 2008)

Marijuana

November 10, 2009:  The American Medical Association softened its position on medical marijuana. The statement read in part: "Our AMA urges that marijuana's status as a federal Schedule I controlled substance be reviewed with the goal of facilitating the conduct of clinical research and development of cannabinoid-based medicines, and alternate delivery methods. This should not be viewed as an endorsement of state-based medical cannabis programs, the legalization of marijuana, or that scientific evidence on the therapeutic use of cannabis meets the current standards for a prescription drug product." (see January 11, 2010)

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October 22 Peace Love Activism

October 22 Peace Love Activism

Feminism & Voting Rights

October 22 Peace Love ActivismOctober 22, 1917: Alice Paul sentenced to seven months in jail in the Occoquan Workhouse, located in Virginia. (see Nov 5, 1917)  NYT article)

BLACK HISTORY

Leon McAtee
October 22, 1946: Holmes County, Mississippi, court freed the five white men accused in the beating death of Leon McAtee. Though one of the five had confessed to his own involvement in the murder and implicated the other four men, none was convicted. Before the trial ended, Judge S.F. Davis acquitted Spencer Ellis and James Roberts, finding the evidence insufficient to prove their guilt. The all-white jury then deliberated for ten minutes before acquitting Jeff Dodd Sr., Jeff Dodd Jr., and Dixie Roberts.

Leon McAtee was a tenant on Jeff Dodd Sr.’s farm who working a small plot of land for very little pay. When Mr. Dodd’s saddle went missing, he suspected Mr. McAtee of stealing it and had the black man arrested. On July 22, 1946, Mr. Dodd withdrew the charges and police released Mr. McAtee into Mr. Dodd’s custody. Mr. Dodd then called Dixie Roberts and together they took Mr. McAtee back to Mr. Dodd’s home, where Jeff Dodd Jr., James Roberts, and Spencer Ellis awaited them.

Inside the home, all five men beat Mr. McAtee and whipped him with a three-quarter-inch rope. The men then drove the badly beaten man to his home and presented him to his wife, who later reported that her husband was dazed and muttering about a saddle. The men then drove away with Mr. McAtee in their truck, and Mrs. McAtee fled with her children. Her husband was found dead in a bayou two days later. Soon after, his two young stepsons confessed to stealing the saddle. (see Nov 5)
John Earl Reese
October 22 Peace Love Activism
October 22, 1955: John Earl Reese was in a Mayflower, Texas, café when white men fired nine shots through the window, killing him and injuring his cousins. The men were attempting to terrorize African Americans into giving up plans for a new school. Local authorities were reluctant to investigate the shooting, with one sheriff insisting the culprit could be found in the nearby black community.

The following year the Texas Rangers took over the case and arrested two white men after one admitted they had fired nine bullets into the cafe from their speeding car. Both men acknowledged being angry about a new school being built in Mayflower, a mostly black community.

The men were found guilty of "murder without malice" and received five-year prison sentences that were immediately suspended. Neither spent a day in jail. Perry Dean Ross and Joseph Reagan Simpson were both convicted of the crime, but never spend a day behind bars because the judge suspended their five-year sentences. A historical marker in town now honors Reese. (see Nov 7)
School Desegregation
October 22 Peace Love ActivismOctober 22, 1963: many Chicago organizations that were part of the Coordinating Council of Community Organizations (CCCO) staged a school boycott.  250,000 students did not attend school, and at least 20,000 marched on the streets of Chicago. The march was one of the largest and most overlooked civil rights actions of the 1960’s took place in Chicago. (BH, see Nov 1; SD, see April 7, 1964)
March to MontgomeryOctober 22 Peace Love Activism
October 22, 1965: the jury took less than two hours to acquit Collie Wilkins in Viola Liuzzo's slaying. (BH, see Nov 4; March, see Nov 30) (NYT article)

  INDEPENDENCE DAY

October 22, 1953: Laos independent from France. (see Nov 9)

Nuclear/Chemical News

Atomic testing
October 22, 1962: Soviet Union detonated 8.2 megaton above ground nuclear bomb. (CW, see Oct 22; NN, see Oct 30)
Security lapse
October 22, 2013: Air Force officials said officers entrusted with the launch keys to long-range nuclear missiles were caught twice during 2013 leaving open a blast door that is intended to help prevent a terrorist or other intruder from entering their underground command post. (see Nov 24)

The Cold War

October 22, 1962: President Kennedy announced the existence of Soviet missiles in Cuba and ordered a naval blockade (see January 3, 1966). The Joint Chiefs of Staff unanimously agreed that a full-scale attack and invasion was the only solution. (see Oct 23)

Vietnam

October 22, 1963: President John F. Kennedy was unhappy with stories in the New York Times by reporter David Halberstam, which indicated that American efforts to support the South Vietnamese government against the Viet Cong (aka, National Liberation Front) were failing. Kennedy tried to get the Times publisher to transfer Halberstam out of Vietnam on this day, but the Times refused. (see Nov 1)

Highway Beautification Act

October 22, 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Highway Beautification Act, which attempted to limit billboards and other forms of outdoor advertising, as well as with junkyards and other unsightly roadside messes, along America's interstate highways. The act also encouraged "scenic enhancement" by funding local efforts to clean up and landscape the green spaces on either side of the roadways. "This bill will enrich our spirits and restore a small measure of our national greatness," Johnson said at the bill's signing ceremony. "Beauty belongs to all the people. And so long as I am President, what has been divinely given to nature will not be taken recklessly away by man." 

October 22 Music et al

Supremes

October 22 Peace Love ActivismOctober 22 – November 4, 1966: The Supremes’ Supremes A’ Go-Go is the Billboard #1 album.
“The Beatles are now bigger than The Beatles”
October 22, 1996: Beatles publicist Geoff Baker announces that "The Beatles are now bigger than The Beatles". His statement was based upon the fact that the year 1996 was expected to be the biggest year for album sales ever for The Beatles. Thus far in 1996, The Beatles had sold 6,000,000 albums from their back catalog and a combined total of 13,000,000 copies of "The Beatles Anthology 1" and "The Beatles Anthology 2". With the release of "The Beatles Anthology 3" only a week away, it was anticipated that total Beatles album sales for 1996 would exceed 20 million. Somewhat surprisingly, studies showed that 41 percent of those sales were to teenagers who were not even born yet when The Beatles officially called it quits in 1970. (see March 11, 1997)
October 22 Peace Love Activism

LGBTQ

October 22 Peace Love ActivismOctober 22, 1975: Air Force Sergeant Leonard Matlovich, a decorated veteran of the Vietnam War, was given a "general" discharge by the air force after publicly declaring his homosexuality. Matlovich, who appeared in his air force uniform on the cover of Time magazine above the headline "I AM A HOMOSEXUAL," was challenging the ban against homosexuals in the U.S. military. (LGBTQ, see September 16, 1977; Matlovich, see December 7, 1978) (NYT pdf)

US Labor History

October 22, 1981: the federal government de-certified  the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization for its strike in August. (see July 8, 1982)

Japanese Internment Camps

October 22 Peace Love Activism
October 22, 1999: groundbreaking on construction of a national memorial to both Japanese-American soldiers and those sent to internment camps takes place in Washington, D.C. with President Clinton in attendance. (see February 2, 2000) NYT article) 
October 22 Peace Love Activism

Native Americans

October 22, 2012: Russell C Means died at age 72. (see June 25, 2013)

Marijuana

October 22, 2013: according to a Gallop poll conducted occasionally since 1969,  for the first time, 58% of Americans said that marijuana should be legalized. 12% of Americans thought that in 1969. (see Nov 5)

Iraq War II

October 22 Peace Love Activism
October 22, 2014:  (from the NYT) four former Blackwater Worldwide security guards were convicted and immediately jailed for their roles in a deadly 2007 shooting in Baghdad’s Nisour Square that marked a bloody nadir in America’s war in Iraq.

A jury in Federal District Court found that the deaths of 17 Iraqis in the shooting, which began when a convoy of the guards suddenly began firing in a crowded intersection, was not a battlefield tragedy, but the result of a criminal act.

 The convictions on murder, manslaughter and weapons charges represented a legal and diplomatic victory for the United States government, which had urged Iraqis to put their faith in the American court system. That faith was tested repeatedly over seven years as the investigation had repeated setbacks, leaving Iraqis deeply suspicious that anyone would be held responsible for the deaths. (Iraq, see March 20, 2015; Blackwater, see April 13, 2015) (NYT article)

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