Tag Archives: James Meredith

September 30 Peace Love Activism

September 30 Peace Love Activism

US Labor History

Homestead, PA
September 30, 1892: authorities charge 29 strike leaders  with treason—plotting "to incite insurrection, rebellion & war against the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania"—for daring to strike the Carnegie Steel Co. in Homestead, Pa. Jurors will refuse to convict them. (see March 25, 1893) 
Mother Jones
September 30, 1899: seventy-year-old Mother Jones organized the wives of striking miners in Arnot, Pa., to descend on the mine with brooms, mops, and clanging pots and pans.  They frighten away the mules and their scab drivers.  The miners eventually won their strike. (see May 19, 1902)
National Farm Workers AssociationSeptember 30 Peace Love Activism
September 30, 1962: The first convention of the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) convened with hundreds of delegates assembled in an abandoned movie theater in Fresno. CA. The group's distinctive flag, a black eagle symbol on a white circle in a red field, was unveiled. (see Sept  8, 1965)

FEMINISM & Voting Rights

September 30, 1918:  President Wilson addressed Senate asking for passage of federal woman suffrage amendment. Wilson's words on failed to drum up the necessary votes to pass the amendment. (see Oct 1)

Black History

Elaine, Ark
September 30, 1919: Black farmers meet in Elaine, Ark., to establish the Progressive Farmers and Householders Union to fight for better pay and higher cotton prices.  A group of whites shot at them. (see Oct 1)
Gary, Indiana school integration
September 30, 1927: an agreement was reached: three of the original six black students at Emerson would be transferred, while the remaining three seniors would be allowed to graduate. The 18 black students transferred into Emerson would again be transferred out to other schools. The sum of $15,000 was also allocated for temporary facilities until a new black high school could be constructed. (BH, see Nov 18; SD, see Nov 21)
Emmett Till
September 30, 1955:  Milam and Bryant were released on bond. Kidnapping charges were pending. (BH, see Oct 10; see Emmett Till)
James H Meredith/Paul Guihard/Ray Gunter
September 30, 1962: hundreds of federal marshals and thousands of Army and National Guard troops met a violent mob of segregationists from all over the South and the University of Mississippi campus became a battleground.

Paul Guihard was a French journalist who covered the Civil Rights struggle during the 60's for Agence France-Press. He had arrived in Oxford on September 29 on his day off. Guihard compared the atmosphere on the 30th to that of a carnival, and wrote of spirited singing and speeches of Southern pride and tradition.
As the day wore on, protesters became restless. Marshals arrested several students and protesters responded by shouting and throwing debris. Guihard waded into the crowd, shrugging off warnings of physical danger. Debris rained down on the marshals and they responded with tear gas. The mob fired back with guns and the marshals responded with gunfire of their own. Guihard was found several hundred yards away lying face-up next to some bushes less than an hour later, dying from a gunshot to the back. Help was called but nothing could be done to save him.

Another man, Ray Gunter, a 23-year-old white jukebox repairman who came by out of curiosity, was also killed in what became known as the Battle for Ole Miss. Gunter's death was ruled accidental and investigations concurred that the bullet that killed him was a stray.

A federal investigation was initiated re the Guihard death, but neither killer nor motive was ever found. the second victim was 23-year-old Ray Gunter, a white jukebox repairman who came by out of curiosity. (see October 1, 1962) 
Huey Newton
September 30, 1978: Huey Newton convicted in Oakland, Ca. on weapons charges. (see Nov 3, 1979)
Medgar Evers assassination
September 30, 1991: Nashville, TN. The Tennessee State Supreme Court ruled that Byron de la Beckwith must be extradited to Mississippi to stand trial a third time. Mr. Beckwith's lawyer then took the case to the Federal courts, asking for a temporary restraining order to block the extradition. Tennessee agreed to hold Mr. Beckwith until then. (Evers, see October 3)

FREE SPEECH

September 30, 1942: until the early 1940s, the FBI had not taken much interest in pornography. That changed on this day, when it opened an “Obscene File” and began a decades-long crusade against sexually oriented materials. The federal laws justifying this effort involved use of the mails, interstate commerce and, by the 1970s, the federal RICO (Racketeer influenced and Corrupt Organizations) law. (see June 14, 1943)

Vietnam

September 30 Peace Love Activism

September 30, 1964: University of California at Berkeley students and faculty opposed to the war staged the first large-scale antiwar demonstration in the US. Polls showed that a majority of Americans supported President Lyndon Johnson's war policy. (see Nov 1)
News Music
September 30, 1965: Donovan appears on Shindig! in the U.S. and plays Buffy Sainte-Marie's "Universal Soldier". (V, see Oct 15; NM, see Jan 15, 1966)
Video of Donovan (may or may not be from Shindig!)

Buffy Saint-Marie

LSD

September 30 – October 2, 1966:  Acid Test. San Francisco State College. Whatever It Is Festival. (see Oct 6)

INDEPENDENCE DAY

September 30, 1966: Botswana independent from United Kingdom. (see Oct 4)
September 30 Peace Love Activism

LGBTQ

Oliver W. Sipple
September 30, 1975: Oliver W. Sipple filed a $15-million lawsuit against the press for reporting that he was homosexual. (LGBTQ, see Oct 22; assassination attempt, see Nov 26)

In 1984 the California Supreme Court dismissed Sipple’s suit, which upheld a lower court's finding that the sexual orientaion of Oliver W. Sipple (the former marine who thwarted an assassination attempt on President Gerald R. Ford) had been known to ''hundreds of people'' before the news accounts, but Mr. Sipple's protest spurred a debate among news organizations obout the individual's right to privacy versus freedom of the press. (see November 14, 1985)
Roy S. Moore
September 30, 2016: Alabama’s Court of the Judiciary, a nine-member body made up of selected judges, lawyers and others suspended chief justice of the Alabama Supreme Court, Roy S. Moore for the remainder of his term in office for ordering the state’s probate judges to defy federal court orders on same-sex marriage. While the court did not remove Chief Justice Moore from the bench entirely, as it did in 2003 after he defied orders to remove a giant monument of the Ten Commandments from the state judicial building, it effectively ended his career as a Supreme Court justice. His term would end in 2019, and Chief Justice Moore, 69, will be barred by law from running again at that time because of his age. (see Dec 22)

The Cold War

September 30, 1978: the Belmont Report, issued on this day, was the official report of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. The Commission had been established by Congress with the National Research Act on July 12, 1974, following revelations of abuse of people in biomedical research. The most notorious case was the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, which involved grotesque abuses of African-Americans in a research study that began in the 1930s. That experiment was exposed on July 26, 1972, and President Bill Clinton issued an official apology to the survivors on May 16, 1997.

The exposé of the Tuskegee Experiment played a major role in forcing Congress to act on human subjects’ protection. The Belmont Report helped establish the current standards for the protection of human subjects.Universities, for example, are required to maintain an Institutional Review Board (IRB) to review and approve research on human subjects. (see Dec 15)

Another of the  notorious experiments on human subjects without informed consent involved the CIA’s MKULTRA project, which it began on April 13, 1953.

Nuclear/Chemical News

September 30, 1999: five people died in an accident at the Mihama power plant (Japan) in the Fukui province. Seven people are also injured when hot water and steam leaks from a broken pipe. Officials insist that no radiation leaked from the plant, and there is no danger to the surrounding area. (see December 13, 2001)

DEATH PENALTY

September 30, 2009: Ohio prison officials executed Kenneth Biros, with a one-drug intravenous lethal injection, a method never before used on a human. The new method, which involved a large dose of anesthetic, akin to how animals are euthanized, had been hailed by most experts as painless and an improvement over the three-drug cocktail used in most states, but it is unlikely to settle the debate over the death penalty.

While praising the shift to a single drug, death penalty opponents argued that Ohio's new method, and specifically its backup plan of using intra-muscular injection, has not been properly vetted by legal and medical experts and that since it has never been tried out on humans before, it is the equivalent of human experimentation. But the United States Supreme Court refused to intervene and the procedure went largely as planned. (see Dec 18)

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September 28 Peace Love Activism

September 28 Peace Love Activism

FREE SPEECH

September 28 Peace Love Activism

September 28, 1842: In People v. Richard Hobbes and People v. Henry R. Robinson, a New York grand jury indicted publishers of obscene books. In People v. Richard Hobbes and People v. Henry R. Robinson for the first time in US history . In addition, indictments were issued against the five print shop owners and book stand operators used by the two publishers.

Titles named in the indictments: Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure; Memoirs of the Life and Voluptuous Adventures of the Celebrated Courtesan Mademoiselle Celestine of Paris; The Cabinet of Venus Unlocked; The Curtain Drawn Up, or The Education of Laura; The Confessions of a Voluptuous Young Lady of High Rank; The Amorous Songster or Jovial Companion; The Lustful Turk; The Amorous History and Adventures of Raymond De B— and Father Andouillard; The Auto-Biography of a Footman. (see July 19, 1911)

BLACK HISTORY

Opelousas Massacre
September 28, 1868:  one of the worst outbreaks of violence during Reconstruction took place in Opelousas, La. The event started with three local members of the KKK-like Knights of the White Camelia beating newspaper editor Emerson Bentley, who had promoted voter registration and education for all. After some African Americans came to his rescue, bands of armed white mobs roamed the countryside and began killing. It is estimated that more than 200 blacks and 30 whites died in the Opelousas Massacre. (see January 5, 1869)
Omaha, Nebraska race revolt

September 28 Peace Love Activism

September 28, 1919: a major race riot erupted in Omaha, Nebraska. A white mob of about 4,000 people lynched and burned the body of Willie Brown, an African-American who was being held in the county jail. The mayor of Omaha, who was white, was almost lynched by the mob, which set fire to the county courthouse.

The origin of the revolt lay in racial conflict in the extensive city stockyards and meat packing plants. (A similar conflict underlay the East St. Louis race revolt that began on July 2, 1917.)  Rumors that Willie Brown had raped a white woman spurred the lynching. Later reports by the police and U.S. Army investigators determined that the victim had not made a positive identification.

 The riot lasted for two days, and ended when over 1,200 federal troops arrived to restore order. Although martial law was not formally proclaimed, for all practical purposes it existed, with troops remaining in the city for several weeks. (see Oct 1)
Gary, Indiana integration protests
September 28, 1927: student against integration in Gary, Indiana continued to protest and now numbered over 1300. Family and other local citizen also protested the proposed school integration. City, school, and district officials met with protesters to begin negotiations for bringing the strike to an end. (see Sept 30)
James H Meredith
September 28, 1962: federal marshals, patrolmen from the Texas – Mexico border, and 110 Army engineers with 49 trucks, van, tractor-trailers, and Jeeps loaded with equipment arrived in Memphis, TN in anticipation of a showdown regarding the admission of Meredith. (see September 29, 1962)
Black Panthers
September 28, 1968: a judge sentenced Huey P. Newton to 2 to 15 years in state prison. (BH, see Oct 16; Black Panthers, see “In November”)
Muhammad Ali
September 28, 1976:  Ali defeated Ken Norton in the fifteenth and final round at Yankee Stadium. Though Norton is ahead through the first eight rounds, Ali pulls through to win all but one of the subsequent rounds. As with Frazier the year before, this bout ends the three-fight series between Ali and Norton. (NYT article) (Ali, see February 15, 1978; BH, see Nov 12)
Johnnie Mae Chappell
September 28, 2005:  retired detectives Lee Cody and Don Coleman, who had led the Jacksonville Sheriff's Office investigation into the 1964 murder of Johnnie Mae Chappell, answered subpoenas sent by the state attorney's office.

Detective Lee Cody said that in all the years he'd been involved in the Chappell case, it was the first time he'd ever been under oath. Cody and Detective Don Coleman took confessions from the three men, but the charges against them were dropped. (BH & Chappell, see Oct 11)

September 28 Music et al

Hey Jude
September  28 – November 29, 1968, The Beatles after live performances: “Hey Jude” #1 on the Billboard Hot 100. "Hey Jude" was released in August 1968 as the first single from the Beatles' record label Apple Records. More than seven minutes in length, it was at the time the longest single ever to top the British charts.[1] It also spent nine weeks at number one in the United States, the longest for any Beatles single. "Hey Jude" tied the "all-time" record, at the time, for the longest run at the top of the US charts. The single has sold approximately eight million copies and is frequently included on professional critics' lists of the greatest songs of all time. (see Oct 18)
see Time Peace: The Rascals Greatest Hits for more

September 28 Peace Love Activism

September 28 - October 4, 1968: The Rascals’ Time Peace: The Rascals Greatest Hits is the Billboard #1 album.

September 28 Peace Love Activism

George Wallace

September 28, 1972: Arthur Bremer’s sentence reduced to 53 years after appeal. (NYT article) (see November 9, 2007)

ADA

September 28 Peace Love Activism

September 28, 1987: protesters demanded better access to mass transit systems by blocking buses at a transit association convention. The number of arrests in two days rose to at least 54. ''It's a very emotional issue for disabled people to have to come out here and do this,'' said Judy Heumann of the World Institute on Disability, an organization based in Berkeley. (see March 13, 1988)

Feminism

Violence Against Women Act
September 28, 1994: the House of Representatives passed the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA), enhancing states' ability to respond to domestic violence, stalking, and sexual assault. (see In February 1995)
RU-486
September 28, 2000: the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves the use of mifepristone (RU-486) for the termination of early pregnancy, defined as 49 days or less. (see Nov 7

Iraq War II

September 28, 2004:  the same intelligence unit that produced a gloomy report in July 2004 about the prospect of growing instability in Iraq warned the Bush administration about the potential costly consequences of an American-led invasion two months before the war began, government officials said. [NYT, 9/28/04] (see Oct 7)

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September 27 Peace Love Activism

September 27 Peace Love Activism

US Labor History

Feminism

September 27 Peace Love Activism

September 27, 1909: New York shirtwaist strike of 1909, also known as the Uprising of the 20,000, was a labor strike primarily involving Jewish women working in New York shirtwaist factories. Led by Clara Lemlich and supported by the National Women's Trade Union League of America (NWTUL). (Labor, see Nov 22; Feminism see Jan 2, 1910)
Change to Win
September 27, 2005: the Service Employees International Union (SEIU), the Teamsters, and other activist unions leave the AFL-CIO to form a new labor coalition called Change to Win. The move represents a new emphasis on organizing workers to bring them into a labor movement starved for members. (January 2, 2006)

Emma Goldman

September 27, 1919: Goldman posted bond and was released from federal prison. She left for Rochester, NY, knowing she would soon receive deportation orders. NYT article. (see Dec 1, 1919)

BLACK HISTORY

Gary Indiana School Desegregation
September 27, 1927: in Gary Indiana, the crowd swelled to about 800 students. Superintendent Wirt hedged his bets by telling the angry crowd that “possibly when a new black school was erected on the east side, Emerson would be again segregated.” (see Sept 28)
A Philip Randolph
September 27, 1940:  civil rights leader A. Philip Randolph met with President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the White House to demand racial integration of the U.S. Armed forces. Congress had created a draft in response to the outbreak of war in Europe, which was to take effect on October 16, 1940. The law contained a provision prohibiting race discrimination, but Randolph felt the military was not honoring it. The meeting with Roosevelt did not go well, and afterwards the administration issued a false report that Randolph had accepted the president’s plan, for which it quickly had to apologize.

U.S. armed forces remained segregated during World War II. Winfred Lynn’s challenge to the segregated draft was unsuccessful (see December 4, 1942; February 3, 1944). (see Nov 13)

School Desegregation
SEPTEMBER 27, 1958: following the Supreme Court's 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision, school boards across the country were ordered to draft desegregation plans. The school board in Little Rock, Arkansas, drafted a plan and agreed to implement it during the 1957-1958 school year. When nine black students, known as the Little Rock Nine, made their way to Central High School as part of Arkansas’s gradual desegregation plan, they were met by angry crowds and the Arkansas National Guard blocking their entry. Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus encouraged the protesters and did everything in his power to hinder integration. Eventually, President Dwight Eisenhower deployed federal troops to Arkansas and commanded the Arkansas National Guard to escort the students to school.

Not yet through with his attempts to thwart integration, Faubus devised another plan. Following the 1957-1958 school year, the Little Rock School Board petitioned for a delay in the implementation of its desegregation plan. A federal district judge granted a delay until 1961, which the NAACP promptly appealed. The case made its way to the Supreme Court where, on September 12, 1958, the Court ordered immediate integration.

By that time, the Arkansas Legislature had passed a law allowing Governor Faubus to close public schools and later hold a special election to determine public support. Immediately after the Supreme Court released its decision, the governor ordered all four public high schools closed pending a public vote. On September 27, 1958, the people of Arkansas voted overwhelmingly (19,470 to 7561) to keep the schools closed rather than integrate. The schools would remain closed for the entire 1958-1959 academic term, known as “the lost year.” (BH, see Oct 14; SD, see Oct 25)
James H Meredith
September 27, 1962: a fourth attempt to enroll. Meredith in the University of Mississippi was canceled after it became evident that his life would be endangered. (see September 28, 1962)
Medgar Evers
September 27, 1973: New Orleans police arrested Byron De La Beckwith who had a bomb and several rifles in his car. He stated he had come to New Orleans to sell china. Police stated that De La Beckwith intended to blow up the home of A I Botnick, head of the New Orleans chapter of B’nai B’rith. It was the first day of Rosh Hashanah. Botnick had moved his family out of New Orleans several days earlier after receiving threatening calls. (see Oct 11)
Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act
September 27, 2007: the Senate passed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act  as an amendment to another bill. President George W Bush indicated he would veto the legislation if it reached his desk. The amendment was dropped by the Democratic leadership because of opposition from conservative groups and President George Bush, and due to the measure being attached to a defense bill there was a lack of support from antiwar Democrats. (LGBTQ, see Nov 8; BH, see March 26, 2008; Shepard, see April 2, 2009)

Religion and Public Education

September 27, 1948: Circuit Judge Grover Watson ordered the Champaign school board to stop all religious education in all public school buildings. NYT article (see Nov 20, 1948)

Environmental Issues

September 27 Peace Love Activism

September 27, 1962: Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring published. The book is widely credited with helping to launch the contemporary American environmental movement. The New Yorker magazine had started serializing Silent Spring in June 1962. Rachel Carson was already a well-known writer on natural history, but had not previously been a social critic. The book was widely read—especially after its selection by the Book-of-the-Month Club and the New York Times best-seller list—and inspired widespread public concerns with pesticides and pollution of the environment. Silent Spring facilitated the ban of the pesticide DDT[3] for agricultural use in 1972 in the United States. NYT article (see Dec 7)

JFK Assassination

September 27 Peace Love Activism

September 27, 1964: the report of the Warren Commission chaired by Chief Justice Earl Warren on the Kennedy assassination was released. The report essentially concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald had acted alone. (see October 5, 1966)
September 27 Peace Love Activism

Vietnam

September 27 Peace Love Activism

September 27, 1967: an advertisement headed "A Call To Resist Illegitimate Authority," signed by over 320 influential people (professors, writers, ministers, and other professional people), appeared in the New Republic and the New York Review of Books, asking for funds to help youths resist the draft.

A Call to Resist Illegitimate Authority” was one of the most powerful and important indictments of the Vietnam War by the anti-war movement. It declared that “the war is unconstitutional and illegal. Congress has not declared a war as required by the Constitution.” Additionally, “this war violates international agreements, treaties and principles of law which the United States Government has solemnly endorsed.” The Call was published in the New York Review of Books, The Nation, and other publications. (see Sept 29)

Sexual Abuse of Children

September 27, 2004: Bishop Thomas Dupre was indicted on child rape charges, becoming the first bishop to face charges in the church sex abuse scandal. Dupree was the head of the Springfield, Mass., diocese, but resigned in February after the allegations came to light. His two alleged victims have said Dupre sexually abused them for years in the 1970s and asked them to keep quiet about the abuse when he was made auxiliary bishop in 1990. (NYT article) (see Nov 15)

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