Tag Archives: Desegregation

September 26 Peace Love Activism

September 26 Peace Love Activism

Technological Milestone

September 26, 1908: the first production Ford Model T leaves the Piquette Plant in Detroit, Mich. It was the first car ever manufactured on an assembly line, with interchangeable parts. The auto industry was to become a major U.S. employer, accounting for as many as one of every eight to 10 jobs in the country (see December 19, 1910)

Mother Earth magazine

September 26 Peace Love Activism

September 26, 1917: the U.S. Post Office directed Mother Earth, the magazine founded and edited by Emma Goldman, the famous anarchist and opponent of U.S. involvement in World War I, to show cause on this day why it should not be barred from the mails because of its opposition to the war. Goldman had already been arrested for opposing the draft, in violation of the Espionage Act, passed on June 15, 1917. The Post Office subsequently denied Mother Earth 2nd Class mailing privilege (a device that was widely used during World War I, and effectively denied use of the mails for publications), and Mother Earth suspended publication.

Goldman would be deported from the U.S. to the Soviet Union on the so-called “Red Ark” on December 21, 1919, along with 249 other alleged alien radicals. (see March 23, 1918)

BLACK HISTORY

School Desegregation
September 26, 1927: Gary, Indiana School Superintendent Dr. William A Wirt faced a dilemma in the 1910 - 20′s as the city’s black population greatly increased. The East Pulaski and Virginia Street School served the black population, but were segregated and in deplorable condition. The spillover caused nominal numbers of black students to receive education in predominately white schools throughout the city, but they were limited in which facilities they could use.

In the 1926 - 27 school year six black students had attended classes at Emerson High School. To help ameliorate the student overpopulation at Virginia Street School the district transferred 18 black students to Emerson in 1927.

White students outraged at the presence of more black students in their  took to the streets. On Monday, September 26 some 600 students walked out of class. Those who remained inside were heckled incessantly until they joined the throngs of protesters. As the demonstration gained momentum signs saying, “WE WON’T GO BACK UNTIL EMERSON IS WHITE. . . . NO NIGGERS FOR EMERSON. . . . EMERSON IS A WHITE MAN’S SCHOOL” taunted the black students. (see Sept 27)  
James H Meredith
September 26, 1962: the chief US Marshal and Mississippi Lieut. Governor scuffled repeatedly as State officials prevented the registration of Meredith for the third time. (see September 27, 1962)
Sixteenth Street Baptist Church bombing
September 26, 1977: reported in the NYT: A 73-year-old former Ku Klux Klansman was indicted today on four counts of first-degree murder in the bombing of a Birmingham church 14 years ago that killed four young black girls attending Sunday school. Robert Chambliss of Birmingham was being held without bond in Jefferson County Jail in Birmingham. (see November 16)  
SOUTH AFRICA/APARTHEID
September 26, 1986: President Reagan vetoed the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act. The law would have imposed sanctions against South Africa and stated five preconditions for lifting the sanctions that would essentially end the system of apartheid. (see Sept 29)

Vietnam

Lt. Col. Peter Dewey
September 26, 1945, Vietnam: Lt. Col. Peter Dewey, a U.S. Army officer with the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in Vietnam and trying to help arrange negotiations between the Viet Minh and France, was unintentioanally shot and killed in Saigon by the Viet Minh.

                Dewey was the head of a seven-man team sent to Vietnam to search for missing American pilots and to gather information on the situation in the country after the surrender of the Japanese. Dewey is not listed on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C. because the United States Department of Defense has ruled that the war officially started, from a U.S. perspective, on November 1, 1955, after the U.S. took over following the French defeat at Dien Bien Phu. (Blog article)(see March 2, 1946)
Scranton Commission

September 26 Peace Love Activism

September 26, 1970:  the President's Commission on Campus Unrest (the Scranton Commission) appealed to President Nixon to lead Americans back from the brink of what it described as a chasm in society so dangerous that it threatened the survival of the nation. The Commission concluded that the shootings at Kent State were unjustified. The report said: Even if the guardsmen faced danger, it was not a danger that called for lethal force. The 61 shots by 28 guardsmen certainly cannot be justified. Apparently, no order to fire was given, and there was inadequate fire control discipline on Blanket Hill. The Kent State tragedy must mark the last time that, as a matter of course, loaded rifles are issued to guardsmen confronting student demonstrators. (see Sept 29)

Politics

September 26, 1960: Richard Nixon and John F. Kennedy, participate in the first (of four) televised presidential election debates.

abc_kennedy_nixon_100921_ms         

September 26 Music et al

Connie Francis
September 26 – October 9, 1960: “My Heart Has a Mind of Its Own” by Connie Francis #1 Billboard Hot 100

Kingston Trio
September 26 – October 30, 1960: the Kingston Trio’s String Along is their 3rd Billboard #1 album in 1960.
Bob Dylan

1961-09-26 Dylan opens

September 26, 1961: Dylan started as opening act for the Greenbriar Boys. He stayed two weeks. (see Sept 29)
Oh Pretty Woman
September 26 – October 16, 1964: “Oh Pretty Woman” by Roy Orbison #1 on the Billboard Hot 100. The title was inspired by Orbison's wife Claudette interrupting a conversation to announce she was going out; when Orbison asked if she was okay for cash, his co-writer Bill Dees interjected "A pretty woman never needs any money.

Brian Epstein
September 26, 1966: Brian Epstein,  hospitalized in a London clinic. The official given reason was that it was a check-up, although it later transpired that he had overdosed on prescribed drugs. Epstein had been suffering from depression and anxiety for some time, a condition exacerbated by his use of drugs - both prescribed and illegal. His anxiety had heightened following The Beatles decision to stop touring, which left Epstein with less involvement in their careers. Each member was undertaking individual projects in the late summer of 1966 and he had intended to join John Lennon in Spain on the set of How I Won The War. 

However, as a result of the hospitalization, he was forced to cancel his visit to Spain. Although Epstein is known to have made later suicide attempts, it is believed that this overdose was accidental. (see Oct 3)
Abbey Road
September 26, 1969: UK release of Abbey Road album. Though recorded after material for the Let It Be lp had already been recorded, it is released before Let It Be. (see Oct 1)
Walls and Bridges
September 26, 1974: US release of Walls and Bridges, the fifth album by John Lennon (released on 4 October in the UK)  Written, recorded and released during his 18-month separation from Yoko Ono (June 1973–January 1975), the album captures Lennon in the midst of his "Lost Weekend". Walls and Bridges was an American Billboard number 1 album. (see Nov 16)

September 26 Peace Love Activism

ADA

1973 Rehabilitation Act
September 26, 1973: the 1973 Rehabilitation Act, passed by Congress and signed into law on this day, was an important milestone in federal programs for disabled persons. It replaced previous laws in 1954 and 1965. Section 504 of the law was particularly important, expanding the rights of persons with disabilities, greatly expanded grants to the states for vocational rehabilitation, and also expanding federal research and training related to persons with disabilities.

When the Department of Health, Education & Welfare (HEW) failed to issue regulations implementing Section 504, disability rights activists protested with a sit-in on April 5, 1977. HEW issued the regulations three weeks later.

The campaign for the rights of the disabled culminated in the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), signed by President George H. W. Bush on July 26, 1990. The ADA served as the model for the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which was signed on March 30, 2007. The U.S. Senate has still not ratified the Convention, however, because of conservative opposition.
“Ugly Law”
In 1974, Chicago repealed last "Ugly Law" . These laws had allowed police to arrest and jail people with "apparent" disabilities for no reason other than being disfigured or demonstrating some type of disability. (see January 8, 1974)

LGBTQ

September 26, 1975: President Ford sent a letter to Oliver W Sipple expressing his "heartfelt appreciation" for the former marine's help during an attack on the President in San Francisco. (see Oliver Sipple)

Nuclear/Chemical News

September 26, 1983: in the early hours of the morning, the Soviet Union's early-warning systems detected an incoming missile strike from the United States. Computer readouts suggested several missiles had been launched. The protocol for the Soviet military would have been to retaliate with a nuclear attack of its own.

But duty officer Stanislav Petrov - whose job it was to register apparent enemy missile launches - decided not to report them to his superiors, and instead dismissed them as a false alarm.

This was a breach of his instructions, a dereliction of duty. The safe thing to do would have been to pass the responsibility on, to refer up. His decision may have saved the world. The detection was false. (see April 4, 1984)

Jack Kevorkian

September 26, 1992: Lois Hawes, 52, a Warren, Michigan, woman with lung and brain cancer, died from carbon monoxide poisoning at the home of Kevorkian's assistant Neal Nicol in Waterford Township, Michigan. (see Nov 23)

Sexual Abuse of Children

September 26, 1996:  the last Magdalene asylum, in Waterford, Ireland, closed. Magdalene asylums were institutions from the 18th to the late-20th centuries ostensibly for "fallen women", a term used to imply sexual promiscuity. The first asylum in Ireland opened in Dublin in 1765. In Belfast there was a Church of Ireland run Ulster Magdalene Asylum (founded in 1839) Initially the mission of the asylums was often to rehabilitate women back into society, but by the early 20th century the homes had become increasingly punitive and prison-like. In most of these asylums, the inmates were required to undertake hard physical labor, including laundry and needle work. They also endured a daily regime that included long periods of prayer and enforced silence. In Ireland, such asylums were known as Magdalene laundries. It has been estimated that up to 30,000 women passed through such laundries in Ireland. (see Magdalene for more) (see Dec 3, 1996)

Immigration History

September 26, 2011: Pastor Manuel Hernández was pulled over by an undercover detective in a rural area near Warrior, Alabama, and became the first person arrested under Alabama’s new anti-immigration law, just hours after a federal judge upheld the law’s key passages.

Pastor Hernández, an undocumented immigrant from Mexico, worked at the Prayer Center for All Nations in Anniston, Alabama. When the detective asked to see his identification, Hernàndez provided his Mexican passport and Mexican Consular ID card, as well as a card issued by the American Association of Chaplains. The detective questioned the validity of these documents and accused Hernàndez of committing a felony by carrying the chaplain card because it had the state seal on it but was an unofficial form of identification.

Though the detective claimed to have pulled Pastor Hernández over for excessive speeding, he never issued a ticket. Hernández was arrested under suspicion of being an undocumented immigrant and spent several days in jail, where he felt discriminated against as a Latino. Hernández said officials refused to give him a Spanish language Bible and, thinking he could not speak English, said in his presence, “He is an illegal and should be treated as an illegal.” After a few days of incarceration, Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) officials released Pastor Hernández with orders to return to immigration court at a later date. (see June 15, 2012)

Occupy Wall Street

September 26 Peace Love Activism

September 26, 2012: the University of California agreed to pay about $1 million to settle a lawsuit filed by UC-Davis students who were pepper-sprayed by campus police during an Occupy-style protest on campus last November. The settlement also calls for a personal written apology from UC-Davis Chancellor Linda Katehi to each person hit with the spray. (see July 21, 2015)

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September 25 Peace Love Activism

September 25 Peace Love Activism

Technological Milestone

September 25 Peace Love Activism

September 25, 1956: the first trans-Atlantic telephone cable went into service. (see August 3, 1958)

BLACK HISTORY

School Desegregation

September 25 Peace Love Activism

September 25, 1957: in a dramatic and unprecedented move, President Dwight Eisenhower sent federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas, to ensure the racial integration of Central High School. The Little Rock crisis was one of the most dramatic events in the history of the civil rights movement.

Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus and local authorities had resisted integration in the face of a court order to implement the Supreme Court’s Brown v. Board of Education decision on May 17, 1954. Mobs had prevented the enrollment of nine African-American students (the “Little Rock Nine”) on September 23, as local authorities failed to maintain public order. Central High School was successfully integrated on this day because of the federal troops.

In 1958, however, local officials resisted another court order, and that issue resulted in a landmark Supreme Court decision asserting the authority of the federal courts to enforce lawful court orders, Cooper v. Aaron, on September 12, 1958. Nonetheless, the Little Rock school board (which was not directly affected by the court decision) voted to close the schools rather than integrate, and the 1958–1959 academic year is known as the “lost year.” The schools opened the following year. (BH & SD, see Oct 5; Central High School, see February 9, 1960)
Herbert Lee murdered

September 25 Peace Love Activism

September 25, 1961: E.H. Hurst – a local white state legislator – shot and killed Herbert Lee in front of several eyewitnesses. Mr. Lee was a member of the Amite County, Mississippi, NAACP and worked with Bob Moses of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) on a voter registration drive. Louis Allen, a black man who witnessed the murder, was initially coerced into saying that Hurst killed Herbert Lee in self defense; he later recanted and said Hurst had actually shot Lee for registering black voters.

Louis Allen spoke with the FBI about Lee’s murder, but told federal authorities that he would need protection if he were to agree to cooperate in their investigation. The FBI refused to provide protection, and Allen did not testify against Hurst. However, news spread in the local community that Allen had spoken with federal investigators.

Beginning in 1962, Mr. Allen was targeted for harassment and violence: local whites cut off business to his logging company; he was jailed on false charges; and on one occasion, Sheriff Daniel Jones broke Allen’s jaw with a flashlight. The son of a high ranking local Klansman, Sheriff Jones was suspected to also be a member of the Ku Klux Klan. Louis Allen filed complaints and testified before a federal grand jury regarding the abuse he suffered at the hands of Sheriff Jones, but his claims were dismissed.. (BH, see May 5, 1962; Lee, see Jan 31, 1964)
St. Matthew’s Baptist Church burned down
September 25, 1962: a pre-dawn fire at St. Matthew's Baptist Church destroyed the building. It was the fifth black church to burn in the past month. (BH, see Sept 25; Albany, see Nov 18)
James H Meredith
September 25, 1962: Mississippi Governor Ross R Barnett’s responded with two proclamations. To sheriffs and law enforcement officers:  They were “authorized and directed to proceed to do all things necessary that the peace and security of the people of the State of Mississippi are fully protected.” The second, directed at Meredith stated in part that “in order to prevent violence and a breach of the peace...do hereby and finally deny you admission to the University of Mississippi.” (see September 26, 1962)
Johnnie May Chappell
September 25, 1964:  soon after obtaining the confessions (see Aug 11), detectives Cody and Coleman were ordered to stop their investigation. Afterwards, Cody was not sure anything else was done to develop the case, but on this date a grand jury indicted all four men on the evidence in the murder of Johnnie May Chappell.

J.W. Rich was the first to go on trial. He says now that the prosecution didn’t have anything on him. It’s true that the case may have looked slim to a jury. The .22-caliber gun that Cody and Coleman recovered was never introduced at trial (it later disappeared from the evidence room). Cody himself wasn’t called to testify. The other men’s statements weren’t submitted in court. The bullet taken from Chappell’s body was introduced in a plain white envelope, not an evidence bag showing the date it had been recovered and from where. Perhaps unwilling to press for a first-degree murder charge in the death of a black woman, the prosecutor told jurors they could find Rich guilty on a lesser count. The jury found him guilty of manslaughter and the judge gave Rich 10 years. He would serve 3.

The State Attorney’s Office released Wayne Chessman, Elmer Kato, and Alex Davis from prosecution for lack of evidence, despite their confessions. (BH, see Oct 14; Chappell, see December 4, 2002)

The Cold War

Eisenhower/Khrushchev

September 25 Peace Love Activism

September 25, 1959: Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev met with President Eisenhower. The two men came to general agreement on a number of issues, but a U-2 spy plane incident in May 1960 crushed any hopes for further improvement of U.S.-Soviet relations during the Eisenhower years. (NYT article) (see May 1)
Nuclear/Chemical News
September 25, 1962: Soviet Union above ground nuclear test. 19.1 megaton. (see Sept 27)
see The Beatles cartoon series for more
September 25, 1965: a cartoon series featuring The Beatles began in the US. Simply titled The Beatles, it ran until 1969 on the ABC network with 39 episodes produced over three seasons. The series was shown on Saturday mornings at 10.30am until 1968, when it was moved to Sunday mornings. Each episode was named after a Beatles song, with stories based on the lyrics. The Beatles themselves were not directly involved in the production, which was created by Al Brodax and Sylban Buck, and produced by King Features Syndicate. American actor Paul Frees provided the voices for John Lennon and George Harrison, while British actor Lance Percival did the same for Paul McCartney and Ringo Starr. (see Oct 9)

Eve of Destruction
September 25 – October 1, 1965: “Eve of Destruction” by Barry McGuire #1 on the Billboard Hot 100. (see Sept 30)

Eighth Big Sur Folk Festival
September 25, 1971:  the final one featured: Joan Baez, Kris Kristofferson, Mimi Fariña and Tom Jans, Mickey Newbury, Big Sur Choir, Lily Tomlin & Larry Manson

U2
September 25, 1976: the Irish rock band U2 formed after drummer Larry Mullen Jr. posted a note seeking members for a band on the notice board of his Dublin school.
September 25 Peace Love Activism

Feminism

September 25, 1981: Sandra Day O'Connor became the first woman appointed to the Supreme Court. (see Nov 12)

Irish Troubles

Maze Prison escape
September 25, 1983: 38 Irish republican prisoners, armed with six handguns, hijack a prison meals lorry and smash their way out of HMP Maze, in the largest prison escape since World War II and in British history. (see Dec 17)
 
Irish Republican Army
September 25, 2005:  two months after announcing its intention to disarm, the Irish Republican Army (IRA) gave up its weapons in front of independent weapons inspectors. The decommissioning of the group s substantial arsenal took place in secret locations in the Republic of Ireland. One Protestant and one Catholic priest as well as officials from Finland and the United States served as witnesses to the historic event. Automatic weapons, ammunition, missiles and explosives were among the arms found in the cache, which the head weapons inspector described as "enormous." (see June 15, 2010)

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September 23 Peace Love Activism

September 23 Peace Love Activism

Native Americans

Battle of Wood Lake
September 23 Peace Love Activism
September 23, 1862: the Battle of Wood Lake. After delays due to forces needed for the Civil War, a large regular army contingent overwhelmingly defeated the Dakota forces. (see December 1862)
Veronica
September 23, 2013: Veronica, the Cherokee girl at the center of a long custody dispute, was handed over to her adoptive parents, Matt and Melanie Capobianco, of South Carolina. Veronica, 4, had been living in the Cherokee Nation with her father, Dusten Brown, since she was 2. Before that, she lived with the Capobiancos. Her adoption was made final earlier this year, but Mr. Brown had appealed. The girl was handed over after the Oklahoma Supreme Court ruled it would not intervene.

Cherokee Nation spokeswoman Amanda Clinton confirmed the announcement via social media about an hour after the handover. “It is with a heavy heart that I can confirm Veronica Brown was peacefully handed over to Matt and Melanie Capobianco (this) evening,” she tweeted. “Updates will be forthcoming, but the transition was handled peacefully and with dignity by all parties. Please keep Veronica in your prayers.” (see Oct 10)

US Labor History

September 23, 1886: a coalition of Knights of Labor and trade unionists in Chicago launched the United Labor party, calling for an 8-hour day, government ownership of telegraph and telephone companies, and monetary and land reform. The party elected seven state assembly men and one senator (see Dec 8)

Anarchism in the US

Leon Czolgosz
September 23, 1901: Leon Czolgosz was put on trial for assassinating US President William McKinley at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. (see Sept 24)
Colorado Fuel and Iron Company
September 23, 1913: miners working for the John D. Rockefeller-owned Colorado Fuel and Iron Company went on strike. Organized by the United Mine Workers Association, the miners moved their families to union tent colonies in the countryside away from the mining camps. (see April 20, 1914)

FREE SPEECH

September 23, 1943: six conscientious objectors, in prison for refusing to cooperate with the draft during WW II, began a hunger strike on this day to protest the censorship of mail and reading material in prison. The strike ended in December 1943. James V. Bennett, head of the federal Bureau of Prisons, ended the censorship but retained the right to open and read mail for security purposes. One participant in the hunger strike, David Dellinger, in the 1960s became a leader in the anti-Vietnam War movement. (FS, see April 4, 1944; Dellinger, see March 20, 1969)

BLACK HISTORY

Emmett Till
September 23 Peace Love Activism
Mr. & Mrs. Roy (Carolyn) Bryant (left) with Mr. & Mrs. J.W. Milam showed happiness at a the verdict delivered in Sumner, Miss. Friday, September 23, 1955.
September 23, 1955:  the jury acquitted Milam and Bryant of murdering Emmett Till after the jury deliberates 67 minutes. One juror told a reporter that they wouldn't have taken so long if they hadn't stopped to drink pop. Roy Bryant and J. W. Milam stand before photographers, light up cigars and kiss their wives in celebration of the not guilty verdict.

Moses Wright and another poor black Mississippian who testified, Willie Reed, leave Mississippi and were smuggled to Chicago. Once there, Reed collapsed and suffered a nervous breakdown. (see Emmett Till; Willie Reed, see July 18, 2013)
School Desegregation

September 23 Peace Love Activism

September 23, 1957: nine black students who had entered Little Rock Central High School in Arkansas were forced to withdraw because of a white mob outside. (History dot com article) (see Sept 24)

September 24 Music et al

LSD

September 23 Peace Love Activism

September 23, 1967: Saturday Evening Post cover features a “Hippie” and a story about the so-called Hippie Cult. (see November)
The Letter
September 23 – October 20, 1967: “The Letter” by the Boxtops #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.

...and a great cover by Joe Cocker w Leon Russell.

Whatever Get You Through the Night
September 23, 1974: Lennon single, Whatever Get You Through the Night released. It would be Lennon's only solo #1 single in the US during his lifetime. Lennon was the last member of The Beatles to achieve an American number one solo hit. The recording featured Elton John on harmony vocals and piano. While in the studio, Elton bet Lennon that the song would top the charts. (see Nov 16)

Vietnam

Chicago 8

02 Nov 1969, Chicago, Illinois, USA --- Portraits of the defendants in the "Chicago 8" trial for conspiracy to incite violence during the 1968 Democratic Convention. Although found guilty, all conviction in this trial were overturned on appeal. --- Image by © Bettmann/CORBIS

September 23, 1969: the Chicago Eight trial began. The defendants included David Dellinger of the National Mobilization Committee (NMC); Rennie Davis and Thomas Hayden of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS); Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, founders of the Youth International Party ("Yippies"); Bobby Seale of the Black Panthers; and two lesser known activists, Lee Weiner and John Froines. The group was charged with conspiracy to cross state lines with intent to incite a riot. All but Seale were represented by attorneys William Kunstler and Leonard Weinglass.

Early in the trial, presiding Judge Julius Hoffaman (no relation to Abbie) ordered Bobby Seale bound and gagged in the courtroom because of his outbursts. Seale’s trial will eventually be separated from the others’. (Chicago Eight, see October 28; Vietnam, see Oct 5)
September 23 Peace Love Activism

DEATH PENALTY

September 23, 2010:  Virginia executed Teresa Lewis for arranging the killings of her husband and a stepson over a $250,000 insurance payment. The 41-year-old was the first woman to be executed in the United States in five years. More than 7,300 appeals to stop the execution - the first of a woman in Virginia since 1912 - had been made to the governor in a state second only to Texas in the number of people it executes. Texas held the most recent U.S. execution of a woman in 2005. Out of more than 1,200 people put to death since the U.S. Supreme Court reinstated capital punishment in 1976, only 11 have been women.

Lewis, who defense attorneys said was borderline mentally disabled, had inspired other inmates by singing Christian hymns in prison. Her execution stirred an unusual amount of attention because of her gender, claims she lacked the intelligence to mastermind the killings and the post-conviction emergence of defense evidence that one of the triggermen manipulated her." Under US law, anyone with an IQ under 70 cannot be executed. Lewis was judged to have an IQ of 72. (ABC news article)(see January 21, 2011)

Sexual Abuse of Children


Archbishop Jozef Wesolowski, former nuncio to the Dominican Republic, is pictured during a 2011 ceremony in Santo Domingo. The Vatican's Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith found the archbishop guilty of sexual abuse of minors and has ordered that he be laicized. RNS photo courtesy Orlando Barria/CNS

September 23, 2014: Vatican officials announced that Pope Francis had ordered the arrest of former Polish archbishop Jozef Wesolowski, accused of child sex abuse in the Dominican Republic.

A Vatican tribunal had defrocked Wesolowski earlier in the year. He was under house arrest inside Vatican City due to the “express desire” of Pope Francis, the Vatican said in a statement. 

The Vatican’s chief spokesman, the Rev. Federico Lombardi, said, “The seriousness of the allegations has prompted the official investigation to impose a restrictive measure that … consists of house arrest, with its related limitations, in a location within the Vatican City State.” (see Oct 14)

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