Tag Archives: Cuban Missile Crisis

November 6

November 6

History fills every day. In 1917, suffragists finally got a foothold in New York when women there won the right to vote. Three years later, women voted nationally for the first time. The US government offered citizenship to Native American veterans.Few of us have heard of Rudolph Anderson, but he was the only US fatality during the Cuban Missile Crisis. And when the Symbionese Liberation Army first struck, we'd never heard that name, either. 

November 6

Suffragists, Voting Rights

November 6, 1917:  the woman suffrage referendum succeeded in New York. New York was the first eastern state to grant women the vote. (click >>> NY sufferage article)

and exactly three years later…

November 6
Women vote for first time nationally
November 6, 1920:  following the ratification of the 19th amendment on August 18, 1920, women across entire United States vote for first time. In Yoncalla, Oregon, woman won every council seat. (click >>> Women vote for first time)

Native Americans

1919 American Indian Citizenship Act

 

November 6
Boney Rabbit, Cecil Gallamore, Stacy Sitting Hawk, Hezekiah Chebahtah, Owen Yackeyyonney and Anton Menteg. Camp Mills, Long Island, New York. March 31, 1919. Dixon noted Menteg, an Aleut from Alaska, was known for his bugle skills, being able to play everything from military signals to ragtime. The other men represent several different tribes: Cherokee (Rabbit), Choctaw (Gallamore), Southern Cheyenne (Sitting Hawk) and Comanche (Chebahtah and Yackeyyonney). All were U.S. citizens, not typically the case with Native American servicemen at the time.
Native Americans were not considered citizens of the United States despite the obvious fact that they were born and lived here for thousands of years before there even was a United States. Native Americans fought in support of US troops in every was. On November 6, 1919, Congress enacted the 1919 American Indian Citizenship Act, but it did not grant automatic citizenship to American Indian veterans who had received an honorable discharge. The Act merely authorized those American Indian veterans who wanted to become American citizens to apply for and be granted citizenship. Few Indians actually followed through on the process.
                "BE IT ENACTED . . . that every American Indian who served in the Military or Naval Establishments of the United States during the war against the Imperial German Government, and who has received or who shall hereafter receive an honorable discharge, if not now a citizen and if he so desires, shall, on proof of such discharge and after proper identification before a court of competent jurisdiction, and without other examination except as prescribed by said court, be granted full citizenship with all the privileges pertaining thereto, without in any manner impairing or otherwise affecting the property rights, individuals or tribal, of any such Indian or his interest in tribal or other Indian property."
(click for a longer article on citizenship and Native Americans around this time >>> Daily Kos)

Cold War, Rudolph Anderson

November 6, 1962:  during the Cuban Missile Crisis on October 27, US Air Force pilot Rudolph Anderson took off in a U-2F (spy plane) from McCoy Air Force Base in Orlando Florida. A few hours into his mission, he was shot down by a Soviet-supplied  surface-to-air missile near Banes, Cuba.  Anderson was killed when shrapnel from the exploding proximity warhead punctured his pressure suit causing it to decompress at high altitude.
November 6
Major Rudolph Anderson’s wrecked U-2 jet
On October 31, Acting United Nations Secretary U Thant returned from a visit with Premier Fidel Castro and announced that Anderson was dead.
November 6 November 6
On this date, Rudolph Anderson's body interred in Greenville, South Carolina at Woodlawn Memorial Park.

 

South Africa, Apartheid

November 6, 1962, : the United Nations General Assembly passed Resolution 1761, which condemned Apartheid in South Africa and called on member-nations to boycott the country. The Resolution also set up a Special Committee against Apartheid.

Vietnam, Draft Card Burning

November 6, 1965: at a peace demonstration in Union Square, NYC, Thomas Cornell (teacher) Marc Edelman (cabinetmaker), Roy Lisker (novelist and teacher), and James Watson (on staff of Catholic Worker Pacifist Movenet) burn their draft cards 

Domestic Terrorism, Symbionese Liberation Army

November 6 marcus foster
November 6, 1973:  after several months of weapons training, the S.L.A. committed its first revolutionary act. They ambush and murder black Oakland school superintendent Marcus Foster and seriously wound his deputy, Robert Blackburn. (click >>> Marcus Foster article)

Medical Marijuana, Massachusetts

November 6, 2012: Massachusetts became the 18th state to approve medical marijuana.

LGBT,  Same-sex marriage

November 6, 2014: in a 2-1 ruling, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit reversed lower court rulings in Ohio, Michigan, Tennessee and Kentucky that struck down same-sex marriage bans, allowing four states to prohibit same-sex unions. (click for full NYT article >>> LGBT)

Sexual abuse of children

Archdiocese of Chicago

November 6, 2014:  the Archdiocese of Chicago released thousands of internal documents showing how it hid the sexual abuse of children by 36 priests, adding to similar disclosures made earlier. (click for full article >>> NYT article)

October 28

October 28

October 28October 28, 1793, Technological Milestone: Eli Whitney applied for a patent for the cotton gin. It was granted in March 14, 1794. It will change the course of American history as it made the cotton crop a valuable commodity for which thousands of workers--Black slaves--would be used.
October 28October 28, 1886, Feminism & Matilda Josyln Gage: joined the New York City Woman Suffrage Association’s protest at the unveiling of the Statue of Liberty. Suffragists called it the greatest hypocrisy of the 19th century that liberty is represented as a woman in a land where not a single woman has liberty. (click → NYT article)
dry-bill-28-oct-1919October 28, 1919,  the day after President Wilson had vetoed the act, the House and Senate override his veto and the Volstead Act was passed, ushering in Prohibition. It went into effect in January 1920. (click → NYT article)
1922princeOctober 28, 1922, Technological Milestone:  hundreds of young men gathered around radios in Western Union offices, speakeasies and a Princeton University physics lab to hear the first-ever cross-country broadcast of a college football game between Princeton and the Chicago Maroons. Telephone lines carried a play-by-play of the match-up. (click → NYT article)

October 28October 28, 1961, The Beatles before their US appearance:  According to Beatles legend, it was on this day that a fan named Raymond Jones attempted to purchase the single "My Bonnie" from Brian Epstein's NEMS record store in Liverpool. Brian managed the record shop, which was part of a large department store owned by his father. The legend states that this was the first occasion on which Brian Epstein heard of the single or, indeed, of        The Beatles. "Mersey Beat" editor Bill Harry discounts this story as improbable. Harry claims to have discussed The Beatles and other local groups with Epstein well before this date, and he adds that Epstein was already writing record reviews for "Mersey Beat" and selling copies of the paper in his shop. Further, Epstein was selling tickets to Sam Leach's 'Operation Big Beat' concert, and The Beatles' name was at the top of the list of groups that were scheduled to appear at the November 10 event.
October 28
October 28, 1962, The Cold War & Cuban Missile Crisis: After much deliberation between the Soviet Union and Kennedy's cabinet, Kennedy secretly agreed to remove all missiles set in southern Italy and in Turkey, the latter on the border of the Soviet Union, in exchange for Khrushchev removing all missiles in Cuba. Nikita Khrushchev announced that he had ordered the removal of Soviet missile bases in Cuba.
00tamishow2osOctober 28 – 29, 1964 filmed over two days at the Santa Monica (Calif.) Civic Auditorium, "The T.A.M.I. Show" (short for  Teenage Awards Music International or Teen Age Music International) featured some of the biggest stars in rock and pop music, including The Rolling Stones, James Brown and the Flames, The Supremes, The Beach Boys and Lesley Gore. It was released in theaters in December 1964.
Dig it! 

 

james brown gif

supremes greatest hitsOctober 28 – December 1, 1967: Diana Ross and the Supremes Greatest Hits is the Billboard #1 album.

supremes

texas-v-1-728

October 28, 1989, FREE SPEECH:, a group burned a United States flag belonging to the United States Postal Service. The flag-burning occurred during a political demonstration convened in front of a post office in Seattle, Washington to protest the enactment of the Flag Protection Act of 1989, 18 U.S.C. § 700. That statute, which prohibits flagburning, had taken effect only minutes before defendants' actions against the flag.

Participants were charged with committing two misdemeanors: one count of wilful injury to federal property and one count of knowingly burning a United States flag in violation of the Flag Protection Act.

On March 21, 1990,  US v Mark John Haggerty, et al. (coming 6 months after Texas v. Johnson (June 21, 1989), in a 5 - 4 decision the US Supreme Court struck down the law because "its asserted interest is related to the suppression of free expression and concerned with the content of such expression." Allowing the flag to be burned in a disposal ceremony but prohibiting protesters from setting it ablaze at a political protest made that clear, argued Justice Brennan in one of his final opinions.

October 28, 2002, BLACK HISTORY & Slave Revolts: (from the NYT) the City Council in Richmond, the former capital of the Confederacy, …unanimously voted to honor a slave who plotted a revolt. A resolution calling the slave, Gabriel Prosser, an ''American patriot and freedom fighter'' commemorates the 202nd anniversary of his hanging on Oct. 10, 1800, in Richmond. Dozens of conspirators were also executed after two slaves told their masters of the plot. ''This resolution seeks to correct an error in history whereby Gabriel has been seen by many as a criminal,'' Councilman Sa'ad El-Amin told the Council.

October 28, 2009: President Obama signed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, also known as the Matthew Shepard Act, as a rider to the National Defense Authorization Act for 2010. Conceived as a response to the murders of Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr., the measure expands the 1969 United States federal hate-crime law to include crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability.

29ABORTION-master675

October 28

October 28, 2013, Birth Control: federal Judge Lee Yeakel of the US District Court in Austin blocked an important part of the state’s restrictive new abortion law, which would have required doctors performing the procedure to have admitting privileges at a nearby hospital. The decision, one day before the provision was to take effect, prevented a major disruption of the abortion clinics in Texas. It was a victory for abortion rights groups and clinics that said the measure served no medical purpose and could force as many as one-third of the state’s 36 abortion clinics to close.

But the court did not strike down a second measure, requiring doctors to use a particular drug protocol in nonsurgical, medication-induced abortions that doctors called outdated and too restrictive.

The decision is widely expected to be appealed to higher courts. Yeakel declared that “the act’s admitting-privileges provision is without a rational basis and places a substantial obstacle in the path of a woman seeking an abortion of a nonviable fetus.” (click → NYT article)

 

 

October 27

October 27

October 27October 27, 1659, SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE: during the late 1650s, the government of colonial Massachusetts felt deeply threatened by the Quaker religion. Puritan leaders thought it could destabilize society by undermining their culture and religion. Laws were passed that outlawed Quakerism. Being a Quaker, meeting with or aiding a Quaker, or publishing Quaker material was punished by banishment from the territory, on pain of death.

The first Quakers to break the laws were Marmaduke Stevenson, William Robinson, Mary Dyar, and Nicholas Davis. On September 12, 1659, they were banished from Massachusetts, and if any of them returned, they would be put to death. Dyar and Davis left Massachusetts. Stevenson and Robinson ignored the ruling, and went to Salem, MA to spread their gospel. The pair were quickly apprehended and imprisoned in Boston. Dyar left Massachusetts but was compelled to return, and she was also locked up.

On October 27, 1659, Stevenson, Robinson, and Dyar were paraded by 200 armed men through the town of Boston to the place of execution at Boston Neck. They tenderly hugged each other, and each cheerfully climbed the gallows-ladder while praising the Lord. Stevenson and Robinson were executed, but Dyar received a reprieve. She demanded to be hanged like her brethren, but was not executed. Dyar was banished once again, and was eventually hanged in 1660 for returning to the colony.

October 27, 1904: New York City Mayor George McClellan took the controls on the inaugural run of the city's innovative new rapid transit system: the subway. While London boasts the world's oldest underground train network (opened in 1863) and Boston built the first subway in the United States in 1897, the New York City subway soon became the largest American system. More than 100 workers died during the construction of the first 13 miles of tunnels and track  (click → NYT subway)
October 27October 27, 1947, The Red Scare, McCarthyism, and the Cold War: screenwriter John Howard Lawson, a witness before the House Un-American Activities Committee, refused to answer, on constitutional grounds, whether he is or was a member of the Communist Party. He was ejected from the hearing and later charged with contempt of Congress. (click → NYT article)

October 27, 1951, BLACK HISTORY & US Labor History: The National Labor Council was formed in Cincinnati to unite Black workers in the struggle for full economic, political and social equality. The group was to function for five years before disbanding, having forced many AFL and CIO unions to adopt non-discrimination policies.

October 27, 1960, BLACK HISTORY & MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR: King was released from jail. Word about John Kennedy’s call circulated widely in the African-American community. Some political commentators believed the publicity gained Kennedy enough African-American votes to give him victory in the November presidential election, but others dispute this interpretation.
October 27October 27, 1962, The Cold War & Cuban Missile Crisis: Radio Moscow began broadcasting a message from Khrushchev. The message offered a new trade, that the missiles on Cuba would be removed in exchange for the removal of the Jupiter missiles from Italy and Turkey.  Cuba shot down a US U2 plane with surface to air missile killing the pilot, Rudolph Anderson. U.S. Army anti-aircraft rockets sat, mounted on launchers and pointed out over the Florida Straits in Key West, Florida.

October 27, 1962, The Beatles before their US appearance:  “Love Me Do/PS I Love You” #48 on UK Melody Maker hit parade.

October 27, 1967, Future Woodstock Performers: Ten Years After released its first album, Ten Years After. Alvin Lee, age 22. 

October 27, 1968, Vietnam: in London, 50,000 protested the Vietnam war.

October 27, 1970, LSD : The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act  passed. Part II of this is the Controlled Substance Act (CSA) which defined a scheduling system for drugs. It placed most of the known hallucinogens (LSD, psilocybin, psilocin, mescaline, peyote, cannabis, & MDA) in Schedule I. It placed coca, cocaine, and injectable methamphetamine in Schedule II. Other amphetamines and stimulants, including non-injectable methamphetamine were placed in Schedule III. 

October 27, 1986, Crime and Punishment: President Ronald Reagan signed the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986. The law created a significant disparity in the sentences imposed in federal courts for crimes involving powdered cocaine versus the sentences imposed for crimes involving crack cocaine. The law imposed certain mandatory minimum sentences for crimes involving certain quantities of powdered cocaine, but those mandatory sentences could also be triggered by crimes involving only one percent of that quantity in cases of crack cocaine. For instance, a drug crime involving five grams of crack cocaine resulted in a mandatory minimum sentence of five years in federal prison, but crimes involving less than 500 grams of powdered cocaine would not trigger the five year minimum sentence.

                This one hundred-to-one sentencing disparity, which was not based on credible scientific evidence about differing biological impacts between cocaine in powder form versus crack form, has had a significant impact on the mass incarceration of African Americans. In the years following the enactment of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act, admissions of African Americans to federal prison spiked from approximately 50 admissions per 100,000 adults to nearly 250 admissions per 100,000 adults, while there was almost no change among whites. Disparities in sentence lengths also increased. In 1986, African Americans received drug sentences that were 11% longer than sentences received by whites, on average, but that disparity increased to 49% in the years following the law's enactment. This law, and similar laws, had a significant role in increasing the incarcerated population from approximately 500,000 in 1980 to nearly 2.3 million in 2013.

October 27,  1997, Jack Kevorkian: the Oregon Death with Dignity Act, which was approved by referendum on November 8, 1994, and which allows voluntary end of life, took effect on this day. The law allows individuals to voluntarily end their own lives by ingesting a life-ending drug that is prescribed by a licensed physician. The law has survived two challenges. Oregon voters rejected a repeal measure by a margin of 60 percent in 1997. And in 2006, the Supreme Court upheld the law, in Gonzales v. Oregon.

October 27, 2014, LGBTQ: the Judicial Council of the nation's second-largest Protestant denomination ruled that a Pennsylvania church jury was wrong to defrock Frank Schaefer last year after he would not promise never to perform another same-sex wedding.

                The council ruled on technical grounds and did not express support for gay marriage in general. Its decision was final.