Category Archives: Activism

Anarchist Activist Emma Goldman

Anarchist Activist Emma Goldman

 

Anarchist Activist Emma Goldman, 

Anarchism

The Anarchist Library site  states: "Anarchists believe that the point of society is to widen the choices of individuals. This is the axiom upon which the anarchist case is founded....Anarchists strive for a society which is as efficient as possible, that is a society which provides individuals with the widest possible range of individual choices."

It continues, "Anarchism is opposed to states, armies, slavery, the wages system, the landlord system, prisons, monopoly capitalism, oligopoly capitalism, state capitalism, bureaucracy, meritocracy, theocracy, revolutionary governments, patriarchy, matriarchy, monarchy, oligarchy, protection rackets, intimidation by gangsters, and every other kind of coercive institution. In other words, anarchism opposes government in all its forms."

Anarchist Activist Emma Goldman

According to the Jewish Women's Archive (JWA): Emma Goldmas was "born on June 27, 1869, in Kovno, Lithuania (then part of the Russian Empire), Emma Goldman became acquainted with poverty, injustice and oppression at a young age. She witnessed violence against women and children, landlords brutalizing peasants, and corrupt officials extorting fees from a powerless constituency. Her family experienced significant anti-Semitism, living in Jewish ghettoes and forced to move often in search of opportunity.

The Immigrant

She and her sister Helena came to the United States in 1885. She did not find, as so many millions before her had not found, streets paved with gold.  Working-class conditions were often brutal and fatal.  She found factory work near relatives in Rochester, NY

Haymarket Square Revolt

Anarchist Activist Emma Goldman, 

On May 4, 1886, labor and radical activists held a rally in Chicago's Haymarket Square to protest the brutal suppression of a strike by the police. As the police attempted to stop the meeting, a bomb exploded, injuring many people and killing a police officer. In the ensuing chaos, a number of demonstrators were killed and six officers fatally injured, mostly by police gunfire.

Authorities accused Anarchists of the killings and four were executed on November 11, 1887. After living under the cruelty of her homeland and experiencing something akin to the same thing in the land of opportunity, Goldman found the idea of anarchism appealing.

Jacob Kershner

Shortly after her arrival, Goldmen met Jacob Kershner whose harsh living conditions were similar to hers. They shared an interest in reading and the arts.  They married four months after then met in February 1887. A year later, disappointed that the union brought no more freedom than when single, she divorced Kershner.

She found temporary work in a New Haven, CT corset factory, but when returning to Rochester and hearing Kershner's threats of suicide, they remarried, only to again divorce quickly in August 1999.

Such behavior caused her Jewish community to shun her, but strengthened her resolve to find her own freedom her own way.

August – December 1889

Anarchist Activist Emma Goldman, 

Goldman moved to New York City and began to work at the office of an anarchist newspaper, Freiheit, and helped organize the November 11 Haymarket Commemoration.

In 1889 she met Alexander Berkman who would become her life-long companion.  They shared an apartment with Modest Stein, and Helene and Anna Minkin.

The Orator

October 19, 1890: Goldman spoke in Baltimore to members of the International Working People's Association in the afternoon. She later spoke in German to the Workers' Educational Society at Canmakers' Hall. This was the first lecture by Goldman to be reported in the mainstream press.

Assassination attempt

July 23, 1892: in reaction to the treatment of Pennsylvania steelworkers locked out of their jobs after demanding higher wages, Berkman traveled to Pennsylvania. (Homestead Strike, July 6, 1892)

He shot and stabbed but failed to kill steel magnate Henry Clay Frick,  Berkman also tried to use what was, in effect, a suicide bomb, but it didn't detonate.

Emma Goldman was suspected of complicity. Police raid her apartment, seizing her papers. The press refered to Goldman, temporarily in hiding, as the "Queen of the Anarchists."

July 26, 1892: the New York Times reported that “Emma Goldman who is reported to have been in this city [Pittsburg] Saturday Night, and with whom Berkmann lived at one time, could not be found yesterday. It is believed by many that she knew of Berkmann’s trip to Pittsburgh, and furnished him money to go with.”

September 19, 1892: Berkman sentenced to twenty-two years in prison.

June 1893: Illinois Governor John Peter Altgeld pardoned three men found guilty of the Haymarket bombing, effectively ending his political career.

Goldman arrested after speech

In August 1893: Goldman addressed a public meeting, urging those in need to take bread if they are hungry. Four days later, she led a march of 1,000 people to Union Square, where, speaking in German and English, she repeated her belief that workers are entitled to bread. The speech led to her arrest for inciting a riot. She pleaded not guilty. (NYT article)

October 4 - 16, 1893: Goldman was tried and found guilty of inciting to riot. She was sentenced to one year in the penitentiary on Blackwell's Island in New York's East River.

August 17, 1894: Goldman released from prison. Her account of the experience appears in the New York World the next day.

Continues to speak

February - June 1898: Goldman addressed sixty-six meetings in twelve states and eighteen cities; reporters noted Goldman's improved command of English.

Leon Czolgosz

Anarchist Activist Emma Goldman, 

September 6, 1901: Leon Czolgosz, a Polish citizen associated with the Anarchist movement  shot President William McKinley twice in the stomach while McKinley was attending the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. McKinley had been greeting the public in a receiving line. Czolgosz later confessed to the crime, signing a statement saying that the last public speaker he had heard was Emma Goldman, but added she had never told him to kill the president.
Anarchist Activist Emma Goldman, 
September 10, 1901: a warrant is issued for Goldman’s arrest in connection with the (then) assassination attempt. Goldman gave herself up and was subjected to intensive interrogation. Though initially denied, bail was set at $20,000. She was never officially charged with a crime.

September 14, 1901: President McKinley died of a gangrenous infection stemming from his wounds.

September 23, 1901:: Leon Czolgosz was put on trial for assassinating US President William McKinley at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York.

September 24, 1901: Czolgosz convicted and Goldman released,  the case against her dropped for lack of evidence.

October 29, 1901: Leon Czolgosz executed.

Immigration Acts

March 3, 1903: the 1903 Immigration Act banned the entry into the U.S. of anarchists, beggars, epileptics, and importers of prostitutes. The act became a model for subsequent restrictive, anti-immigrant laws in the years and decades ahead. 

The 1918 Immigration Act, passed on October 16, 1918, expanded the definition of an “anarchist,” allowing the government to deport more alleged radicals. 

The 1924 Immigration Act, passed on May 26, 1924, which included a “national origins” quota system that discriminated against people seeking to come to the U.S. from Eastern and Southern Europe. 

The 1952 McCarran-Walter Act, passed on June 27, 1952, was a Cold War law that barred the immigration of alleged “subversives” and allowed the government to deport immigrants who were deemed subversive.

1965 Immigration Act replaced the 1924 act. The 1965 act abolished the quota system. President Lyndon signed  the 1965 act into law on October 3, 1965, in a ceremony at the Statue of Liberty.

International Workers of the World

Anarchist Activist Emma Goldman, 

June 27, 1905: Western miners and other activists form the Industrial Workers of the World at a convention in Chicago. The IWW, or Wobblies, was one of the most radical of all organized labor groups. Though they will achieve only limited success in moving their agenda forward, they will inspire generations of labor activists with their militant spirit. The Wobbly motto: "An injury to one is an injury to all."

Mother Earth magazine

in March, 1906:  the publication of the first issue of Mother Earth. Emma Goldman launched a speaking tour to raise money for the publication. It published articles on a variety of anarchist topics including the labor movement, education, literature and the arts, state and government control, and women's emancipation, sexual freedom, and was an early supporter of birth control.  The magazine ran until 1917.
Berkman and Goldman together again
May 18, 1906: Alexander Berkman released from prison after serving nearly 14 years of his 22-year sentence.

On May 26, 1906 a New York Time article headline reads: AN ANARCHIST HONEYMOON. In it, the reporter talks to the couple that the Chicago police are searching for.

October 30, 1906: Goldman  arrested in Manhattan while attending an anarchist meeting called to protest police suppression of free speech at a previous meeting. She was charged with unlawful assembly for the purpose of overthrowing the government under the new criminal laws against anarchy.

January 6, 1907: Goldman arrested while speaking on "The Misconceptions of Anarchism" at an afternoon meeting of 600 people in New York City.

PFC  William Buwalda

April 26, 1908: Goldman lectured on patriotism at Walton's Pavilion in San Francisco. A US soldier, PFC  William Buwalda, attended the lecture in uniform and was witnessed shaking her hand. 

Within two weeks, he is court-martialed in violation of the 62nd Article of War, and found guilty by a military court, dishonorably discharged and sentenced to five years at hard labor on Alcatraz Island, San Francisco, California.  

May 22, 1908:  William Buwalda's sentence was commuted to three years' hard labor, in deference to Buwalda's 15 years of excellent military service and the assumption of a temporary lapse in judgment under the sway of an "anarchist orator."

December 31, 1908: President Theodore Roosevelt pardoned William Buwalda, In January of 1909, Emma Goldman announced that anarchists across the country had raised one thousand dollars for Buwalda to begin a new life after prison.

Rout

January 15, 1909: San Francisco police arrested Goldman and Ben Reitman just before they were about to hold a meeting. Police charged them with rout—the assembly of two or more persons at a meeting where measures are advocated where if they were actually carried out would lead to a riot.

Police also arrested William Buwalda for his protest of their arrest.

July 23, 1909: Goldman spoke in NYC. Among her comments were: Many people are afraid to come to an Anarchist meeting because they fear that they will be blown up. Isn’t it stupid to be afraid of violence; only of individual violence. They have no objection to battlefields, and policemen, and electric chairs, and other ornaments of the present system. So long as violence is committed in the name of the State they are happy.” She referred to the hanging of the Anarchists after the Haymarket riots as “judicial murder.”

January 14, 1910: Mother Earth magazine was banned from the mails after Anthony Comstock complained about Goldman's essay, "The White Slave Traffic," under section 497 of the Postal Laws and Regulations Act of 1902. Later, the issue will be released by the Post Office after Comstock is forced to withdraw his objections.

Anarchists excluded

March 26, 1910: an amendment to the Immigration Act of 1907 passed Congress. The 1910 Act, while not changing the language excluding anarchists, streamlined the methods of prosecution and deportation of excludable aliens, forbidding any anarchists into the U.S.

On her 1910 tour, she had spoken 120 times in thirty-seven cities in twenty-five states, reaching 25,000 people. On December 17, 1910 Goldman published her first book, Anarchism and Other Essays

Ben Reitman

May 14, 1912: Goldman and Ben Reitman arrived in San Diego to support the efforts of the I.W.W. An angry crowd of 2,000 surrounded Goldman's hotel. 

Vigilantes seized Reitman, tarred and"sagebrushed" him, and burned the letters "I.W.W." skin with a cigar. The vigilantes also forced Reitman to kiss the American flag and sing "The Star Spangled Banner." He later made his way back to San Diego, and then to Los Angeles, where he reunited with Goldman.  

May 17, 1912:: in a New York Times article, Ben Reitman described his abduction and torture.

A year later, on May 20, 1913: Goldman and Reitman returned to San Diego. Goldman was scheduled to lecture on Ibsen's Play, "An Enemy of the People." 

Upon their arrival, they were taken to a police station under police protection, surrounded by a mob, and later escorted and placed aboard the afternoon train to Los Angeles "for their own safety."

World War I

June 28, 1914: a Bosnian Serb anarchist assassinates Archduke Ferdinand, the heir to the Austrian throne.

August 4, 1914: Britain declares war on Germany.

Goldman and Women’s Health

Anarchist Activist Emma Goldman, 

August 6, 1915: Goldman and  Reitman arrested in Portland, OR for distributing literature on birth control. Goldman wass released on $500 cash bail and announced that she would try to speak on the subject of birth control on August 7. Reitman remained in jail. 

August 7, 1915: Goldman and Ben Reitman fined $100 for having distributed birth control information. Goldman spoke that evening on "The Intermediate Sex (A Discussion of Homosexuality)" at Turn Hall. In the audience were policemen in plain clothes, a deputy district attorney, and a deputy city attorney. She was not arrested.

February 8, 1916: Goldman lectured in NYC on Women’s Health.

February 11, 1916:: Goldman was scheduled to lecture on the "Philosophy of Atheism" at Vorwart Hall,  NYC. She was arrested as she was about to enter the building, and charged with violating Section 1142 of the New York State Penal Code for lecturing the previous Tuesday on a medical question (birth control) in defiance of the law. Goldman released on $500 bail.

March 1, 1916: Goldman spoke at a birth control mass meeting held at Carnegie Hall in New York City. Other speakers included Margaret Sanger, Leonard Abbott, Gilbert E. Roe, Theodore Schroeder, Bolton Hall, John Reed, Anna Strunsky Walling, Dr. William J. Robinson and Dr. A. L. Goldwater.

April 20, 191: Goldman tried at Special Sessions for lecturing on birth control. She was sentenced to fifteen days in Queens County Jail after refusing to pay a $100 fine.

May 5, 1916: Goldman spoke at a birth control meeting at Carnegie Hall, NYC.

January 8, 1917: a New York court acquitted Goldman of the charge of circulating birth control information.'

Anti-Draft

June 14, 1917:: Goldman and Alexander Berkman spoke at a No-Conscription League mass meeting. After the meeting, the police required men of draft age to show their conscription cards. As a result 30 men were detained, and two arrested. 

June 15, 1917: President Woodrow Wilson signed the Espionage Act, which set penalties of up to thirty years' imprisonment and fines of up to $10,000 for persons aiding US enemies, interfering with the draft, or encouraging disloyalty in the armed forces. On the same day, Goldman, Berkman, and William Bales were arrested at the Mother Earth offices. Manuscripts, letters and subscription lists, as well as subscription lists for the No-Conscription League and another publication, The Blast, were confiscated.

June 16, 1917: Goldman and Alexander Berkman were indicted on the charge of obstructing the Draft Act (Selective Service Act) in NYC. They pled not guilty. Bail set at $25,000 each.

July 9, 1917: Goldman and Alexander Berkman found guilty of conspiracy against the selective draft law in NYC. 

September 11, 1917: while out on bail, Goldman was prevented from speaking at the Kessler Theater by the New York City police. She appeared with a gag over her mouth. 

Goldman and Berkman were found guilty, fined $10,000 and sentenced to two years' imprisonment

Berkman was sent to Atlanta State Penitentiary in Georgia and Goldman was taken to Jefferson City Penitentiary in Missouri.

September 26, 1917: the U.S. Post Office directed Mother Earth to show cause why it should not be barred from the mails because of its opposition to the war. 

The Post Office subsequently denied Mother Earth 2nd Class mailing privilege (a device that was widely used during World War I, and effectively denied use of the mails for publications), and Mother Earth suspended publication.

Deportation

Anarchist Activist Emma Goldman, 

September 27, 1919: Goldman and Berkman released from federal prison but J Edgar Hoover, director of the Justice Department's General Intelligence Division, convinced the courts to deny their citizenship claims, have them re-arrested, and prepare  deportation orders.

December 1, 1919: the Department of Labor ordered Goldman and Alexander Berkman to appear at Ellis Island for deportation to Russia.

December 21, 1919: the ship USAT Buford, labeled the “Red Ark,” embarked from New York City on this day, carrying 249 aliens who were deported because of their alleged anarchist or Communist beliefs. 

An estimated 184 of the 249 aliens on the Buford were members of the Union of Russian Workers. All of the passengers were shipped to Russia.

Hoping to see the freedom socialism promised, Goldman and Berkman became disillusioned by its terror and despotism.

They left Russia in 1921. 

Deportee Berkeman

Anarchist Activist Emma Goldman, 

Berkman moved to Berlin, Germany then to Saint-Cloud, France. He continued to support the ideals of anarchism. Poor health and chronic pain led him to shoot himself, He did not die immediately, but lingered in a coma for several hours before dying. 

Deportee Goldman

With the exception of a brief ninety-day lecture tour in 1934, Goldman spent the remaining years of her life in exile from the United States, wandering through Sweden, Germany, France, England, Spain and Canada in a futile search for a new political "home."

July - December 1922: Goldman completed a manuscript, My Two Years in Russia .

In 1923, Goldman's manuscript published under the title My Disillusionment in Russia.

January, 1925. In London, Goldman continued her efforts to expose the Bolsheviks as betrayers of the revolution and violators of civil liberties, a task made more difficult by the return of a British trade union delegation that reported favorably on conditions in the Soviet Union.

June 1925: discouraged by the public response to her lectures on Russia, Goldman focused on earning money by writing a new series of lectures on drama.

June 27, 1925: on her birthday, Goldman married James Colton, an elderly anarchist friend and trade unionist from Wales, in order to obtain British citizenship and the right to travel and speak more freely.

In October 1926:: Goldman sailed for Canada to lecture; its proximity rekindled her hope for readmission to the U.S.

In 1930: journalist H. L. Mencken petitioned the U.S. Department of State to revoke Goldman's deportation and grant her a visitor's visa. He also requested that the Department of Justice return her personal papers seized in the 1917 raid on the Mother Earth office, to no avail.

March 26 – April 4, 1933:  the New York World published a series of controversial articles by Goldman exposing the harsh political and economic conditions in Russia.

Back in the USA

January 1934: the U.S. Department of Labor approved a three-month visa, effective February 1, for Goldman to lecture in the U.S. on non-political subjects. Once word of her tour leaked, many lecture agencies in the U.S. offered their services.

February 1934: Goldman visited relatives in Rochester, NY before arriving in NYC on February 2, where she was mobbed by reporters and photographers at Pennsylvania Station and the Hotel Astor.

March 21 - April 2, 1934: Goldman delivered five lectures in Chicago. Sixteen hundred attended the lecture under the auspices of the Free Society Forum on March 22, twelve hundred at the University of Chicago on March 23, and a thousand at Northwestern University on March 26. Fifteen hundred attend a banquet held in her honor at the Medinah Hotel on March 28. 

April 30, 1934: Goldman returned to Canada.

May 3, 1935: from the New York Times: [Montreal] Emma Goldman was hailed as “one of the great women of the age,” whose qualities of mind and sould would be remembered long after she had gone by Rabbi Stern of Montreal last night when friends and admirers of Miss Goldman gave a farewell dinner before she leaves for Europe.”

Her final days

Anarchist Activist Emma Goldman, 
The birth date is incorrect
February 17, 1940: living in Toronto, Goldman suffered a stroke that left her paralyzed on her right side and unable to speak.

May 14, 1940: Goldman died at the age of seventy. Tributes and messages of condolence arrive from around the world. Her body was taken to the Labor Lyceum in Toronto. The Rev. Salem Bland delivered a eulogy.

May 17, 1940: Goldman was buried in Waldheim Cemetery, Chicago, close to the Haymarket memorial.  Alexander Berkeman had requested the same, but lacking funds, he had had to be buried in France.

In an address delivered at the burial, Jacob Siegel, editor of The Jewish Daily Forward, said, “Emma Goldman was a rebel all her life against injustices, until after the last war, when a change took place in her philosophy and mode of living. Were she living today, Emma Goldman would be assisting in the present human effort to destroy Hitlerism.”

It’s Christmastime in Washington

The Democrats rehearsed

Gettin’ into gear for four more years

Things not gettin’ worse

The Republicans drink whiskey neat

And thanked their lucky stars

They said, ‘He cannot seek another term

They’ll be no more FDRs’

I sat home in Tennessee

Staring at the screen

With an uneasy feeling in my chest

And I’m wonderin’ what it means

So come back Woody Guthrie

Come back to us now

Tear your eyes from paradise

And rise again somehow

If you run into Jesus

Maybe he can help you out

Come back Woody Guthrie to us now

I followed in your footsteps once

Back in my travelin’ days

Somewhere I failed to find your trail

Now I’m stumblin’ through the haze

But there’s killers on the highway now

And a man can’t get around

So I sold my soul for wheels that roll

Now I’m stuck here in this town

 

 

There’s foxes in the hen house

Cows out in the corn

The unions have been busted

Their proud red banners torn

To listen to the radio

You’d think that all was well

But you and me and Cisco know

It’s going straight to hell

So come back, Emma Goldman

Rise up, old Joe Hill

The barracades are goin’ up

They cannot break our will

Come back to us, Malcolm X

And Martin Luther King

We’re marching into Selma

As the bells of freedom ring

 

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June 12 Music et al

June 12 Music et al

Camelot
June 12 – July 23, 1961, the original Broadway cast album from Camelot  Billboard’s #1,

 
June 12, 1963: following Byron De La Beckwith assassination of NAACP civil rights leader Medgar Evers, musicians wrote several songs about the incident.
Ballad of Medgar Evers, by Phil Ochs

In the state of Mississippi many years ago
A boy of 14 years got a taste of southern law
He saw his friend a hanging and his color was his crime
And the blood upon his jacket left a brand upon his mindToo many martyrs and too many dead
Too many lies too many empty words were said
Too many times for too many angry men
Oh let it never be againHis name was Medgar Evers and he walked his road alone
Like Emmett Till and thousands more whose names we’ll never know
They tried to burn his home and they beat him to the ground
But deep inside they both knew what it took to bring him down

 

 

And they laid him in his grave while the bugle sounded clear
Laid him in his grave when the victory was near
While we waited for the future for freedom through the land
The country gained a killer and the country lost a man

And they laid him in his grave while the bugle sounded clear
Laid him in his grave when the victory was near
While we waited for the future for freedom through the land
The country gained a killer and the country lost a manThe killer waited by his home hidden by the night
As evers stepped out from his car into the rifle sight
He slowly squeezed the trigger, the bullet left his side
It struck the heart of every man when Evers fell and died.And they laid him in his grave while the bugle sounded clear
Laid him in his grave when the victory was near
While we waited for the future for freedom through the land
The country gained a killer and the country lost a man
Only a Pawn in Their Game, by Bob Dylan

A bullet from the back of a bush
Took Medgar Evers’ blood
A finger fired the trigger to his name
A handle hid out in the dark
A hand set the spark
Two eyes took the aim
Behind a man’s brain
But he can’t be blamed
He’s only a pawn in their game
A South politician preaches to the poor white man
“You got more than the blacks, don’t complain
You’re better than them, you been born with white skin, ” they explain
And the Negro’s name
Is used, it is plain
For the politician’s gain
As he rises to fame
And the poor white remains
On the caboose of the train
But it ain’t him to blame
He’s only a pawn in their game
The deputy sheriffs, the soldiers, the governors get paid
And the marshals and cops get the same
But the poor white man’s used in the hands of them all like a tool
He’s taught in his school
From the start by the rule
That the laws are with him
To protect his white skin
To keep up his hate
So he never thinks straight
‘Bout the shape that he’s in
But it ain’t him to blame
He’s only a pawn in their game
From the poverty shacks, he looks from the cracks to the tracks
And the hoofbeats pound in his brain
And he’s taught how to walk in a pack
Shoot in the back
With his fist in a clinch
To hang and to lynch
To hide ‘neath the hood
To kill with no pain
Like a dog on a chain
He ain’t got no name
But it ain’t him to blame
He’s only a pawn in their game
Today, Medgar Evers was buried from the bullet he caught
They lowered him down as a king
But when the shadowy sun sets on the one
That fired the gun
He’ll see by his grave
On the stone that remains
Carved next to his name
His epitaph plain
Only a pawn in their game
Mississippi Goddam, by Nina Simone

The name of this tune is Mississippi goddam
And I mean every word of itAlabama’s gotten me so upset
Tennessee made me lose my rest
And everybody knows about Mississippi goddamAlabama’s gotten me so upset
Tennessee made me lose my rest
And everybody knows about Mississippi goddamCan’t you see it
Can’t you feel it
It’s all in the air
I can’t stand the pressure much longer
Somebody say a prayerAlabama’s gotten me so upset
Tennessee made me lose my rest
And everybody knows about Mississippi goddamThis is a show tune
But the show hasn’t been written for it, yet

Hound dogs on my trail
School children sitting in jail
Black cat cross my path
I think every day’s gonna be my last

Lord have mercy on this land of mine
We all gonna get it in due time
I don’t belong here
I don’t belong there
I’ve even stopped believing in prayer

Don’t tell me
I tell you
Me and my people just about due
I’ve been there so I know
They keep on saying ‘Go slow!’

But that’s just the trouble
‘Do it slow’
Washing the windows
‘Do it slow’
Picking the cotton
‘Do it slow’
You’re just plain rotten
‘Do it slow’
You’re too damn lazy
‘Do it slow’
The thinking’s crazy
‘Do it slow’
Where am I going
What am I doing
I don’t know
I don’t know

 

Just try to do your very best
Stand up be counted with all the rest
For everybody knows about Mississippi goddamI made you thought I was kiddin’Picket lines
School boy cots
They try to say it’s a communist plot
All I want is equality
For my sister my brother my people and meYes you lied to me all these years
You told me to wash and clean my ears
And talk real fine just like a lady
And you’d stop calling me Sister SadieOh but this whole country is full of lies
You’re all gonna die and die like flies
I don’t trust you any more
You keep on saying ‘Go slow!’
‘Go slow!’But that’s just the trouble
‘Do it slow’
Desegregation
‘Do it slow’
Mass participation
‘Do it slow’
Reunification
‘Do it slow’
Do things gradually
‘Do it slow’
But bring more tragedy
‘Do it slow’
Why don’t you see it
Why don’t you feel it
I don’t know
I don’t know

You don’t have to live next to me
Just give me my equality
Everybody knows about Mississippi
Everybody knows about Alabama
Everybody knows about Mississippi goddam, that’s it

June 12 Music et al

Back in My Arms, Again

June 12 Music et al

June 12 – 18, 1965: “Back in My Arms, Again” by The Supremes #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.

 
The Family Way soundtrack

June 12 Music et al

June 12, 1967: US release of The Family Way soundtrack album by Paul McCartney and assisted by George Martin. (see Beatles Bible for more)  (see June 19)

 
June 12 Music et al
The Road to Bethel
June 12, 1969: Stanley Goldstein and Don Ganoung (minister and head of community relations) attend public meeting in Wallkill Town Hall in an attempt to allay antagonism toward festival.  Though town supervisor Jack Schlosser was against the event, he attempted to provide a fair hearing. (see June 14)
see Some Time in New York City for more
June 12, 1972, The Beatles post break-up: John Lennon released Some Time in New York City, his third solo album. It is a highly political album and panned by critics. (see August 30)

 

June 12 Music et al, June 12 Music et al,  June 12 Music et al,  June 12 Music et al,

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March 29 Peace Love Activism

March 29 Peace Love Activism

Feminism

Voting Rights
March 29, 1874:  In Minor v. Happersett, Supreme Court ruled that the right to vote "was not necessarily one of the privileges or immunities of citizenship" and therefore "neither the Constitution nor the Fourteenth Amendment made all citizens voters." The decision ended feminists' attempts to secure voting rights under existing constitutional amendments. (see Feminism,  May 8; Voting Rights, see January 10, 1878)

Cultural Milestone

March 29 Peace Love Activism

March 29, 1886: Dr. John Pemberton  brewed the first batch of Coca Cola over a fire in a backyard in Atlanta, Georgia. Pemberton had created the concoction as a cure for "hangover," stomach ache and headache. He advertised it as a "brain tonic and intellectual beverage.” Coke contained cocaine as an ingredient until 1904, when the drug was banned by Congress. (see May 8)

US Labor History

West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish
March 29, 1937: the U.S. Supreme Court, in West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish, upheld the constitutionality of minimum wage legislation enacted by the State of Washington, overturning a decision in 1923 that held that federal minimum wage legislation for women was an unconstitutional infringement of liberty of contract. The case was brought by Elsie Parrish, a hotel housekeeper who lost her job and did not receive back wages in line with the state’s minimum wage for women law. (see May 26)
“Battle of Wall Street”

March 29 Peace Love Activism

March 29, 1948: “Battle of Wall Street,” policed charge members of the United Financial Employees’ Union, striking against the New York Stock Exchange and New York Curb Exchange (now known as the American Stock Exchange). Police arrest forty-three workers in what was to be the first and only strike in the history of either exchange. (see June 21)
Foxconn
March 29, 2012: responding to a critical report about its factories, Foxconn has pledged to sharply curtail the number of working hours in its Chinese factories and significantly increase wages, a move that could improve working conditions across China. (see Sept 24)
Right to Work
March 29, 2016: the Supreme Court handed organized labor a major victory, deadlocking 4 to 4 in a case that had threatened to cripple the ability of public-sector unions to collect fees from workers who chose not to join and did not want to pay for the unions’ collective bargaining activities.

                It was the starkest illustration yet of how the sudden death of Justice Antonin Scalia blocked the power of the court’s four remaining conservatives to move the law to the right. (see Aug 23)

Japanese Internment Camps

Voluntary evacuation
March 29, 1942:  ”Voluntary evacuation” of people of Japanese ancestry from Pacific Coast area ended. Before this date 10,231 moved out of restricted area on their own initiative after Army and newspapers requested this. (see Apr 13)

Cold War

Nuclear/Chemical News

March 29 Peace Love Activism

March 29, 1951:  Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were convicted of passing atomic secrets to the Soviet Union. (see April 5, 1951)

BLACK HISTORY

State Sovereignty Commission

March 29 Peace Love Activism

March 29, 1956: The Mississippi legislature established the State Sovereignty Commission as an official agency to fight the Civil Rights Movement — and the racial integration of public schools in particular. The Commission’s official purpose was to “do and perform any and all acts deemed necessary and proper to protect the sovereignty of the state of Mississippi and her sister states . . . from perceived encroachment thereon by the federal government . . . .” It was later revealed that the Sovereignty Commission employed private investigators to collect information on civil rights activists, which was used to harass them and civil rights activities. (see May 13)
FREE SPEECH

March 29 Peace Love Activism

March 29, 1960: the New York Times carried a full-page advertisement titled "Heed Their Rising Voices" which solicited funds to defend Martin Luther King, Jr. against an Alabama perjury indictment. The advertisement described actions against civil rights protesters, some of them inaccurately, some of which involved the police force of Montgomery, Alabama. Referring to the Alabama State Police, the advertisement stated: "They have arrested [King] seven times..." However, at that point he had been arrested four times. Although the Montgomery Public Safety commissioner, L. B. Sullivan, was not named in the advertisement, the inaccurate criticism of actions by the police was considered defamatory to Sullivan as well, due to his duty to supervise the police department. (BH, see Apr 1; FS, see April 19)
Police dogs
March 29, 1961: a policeman ordered his dog to attack an demonstrator who was too slow in obeying his order to move away from in front of police court, shortly before nine African-American college students went on trial for sitting-in at a white city library in Jackson, Mississippi. (see Apr 6)
Twenty-third Amendment
March 29, 1961: The Twenty-third Amendment to the US Constitution ratified, allowing Washington, DC residents to vote in presidential elections. (see August 22, 1978)

The amendment had been rejected by Arkansas. The following nine states did not vote to ratify the amendment. (January 24, 1961)
  • Florida
  • Kentucky
  • Mississippi
  • Georgia
  • Louisiana
  • South Carolina
  • North Carolina
  • Texas
  • Virginia
SOUTH AFRICA/APARTHEID
March 29, 1961: Nelson Mandela and his co-defendants were acquitted of treason. Fearing he will be arrested again, Mr. Mandela went underground. (see Dec 16)
Malcolm X
March 29, 1964: Malcolm X spoke at an Organization of Afro-American Unity rally at the Audubon Ballroom, Washington Heights, NYC. He spoke specifically regarding Black Nationalism. (BH, see Mar 30; Malcolm X, see April 12)

Viola Liuzzo

March 29 Peace Love Activism

March 29, 1965: the NAACP sponsored a memorial service for Viola Liuzzo at the People's Community Church in Detroit. Fifteen hundred people attended, among them, Rosa Parks. (see March 30)

March 29 Music et al

Road to Bethel and the Woodstock Festival
March 29, 1969: Michael Lang had found a suitable site in Saugerties, NY right off the NY Thruway. On this date, John Roberts and Joel Rosenman met with a Mr Holmes, the lawyer for the site’s owner, Mr Shaler. The lawyer emphatically told Roberts and Rosenman that the site was not for rent for such a purpose. (see March 30) (follow link above for full timeline)
Blood, Sweat and Tears
March 29 – April 4, 1969:  the Blood, Sweat, and Tears’ Blood, Sweat, & Tears Billboard #1 album. It received a Grammy Award for Album of the Year in 1970. (see July 26)

March 29 Peace Love Activism

Vietnam

My Lai Massacre

March 29 Peace Love Activism

March 29, 1971: Lt. Calley was found guilty of premeditated murder of 22 civilians and sentenced to life in prison. This sentence was extremely controversial and generates a widespread public outcry, as an overwhelming majority of Americans believe that Calley was simply following orders, and condemned the fact that one soldier was serving as the army's scapegoat. Draft board members resign, veterans turn in their medals, and the "Free Calley" movement was born. Georgian governor Jimmy Carter asked his constituency to drive for a week with their lights on in protest, and flags are flown at half-mast in the state of Indiana. (My Lai, see Apr 1; Vietnam, see Apr 1)
U.S. combat troops left South Vietnam
March 29, 1973: two months after the signing of the Vietnam peace agreement, the last U.S. combat troops left South Vietnam as Hanoi freed the remaining American prisoners of war held in North Vietnam ending  America's direct eight-year intervention in the Vietnam War. In Saigon, some 7,000 U.S. Department of Defense civilian employees remained behind to aid South Vietnam. Of the more than 3 million Americans who had served in the war, almost 58,000 died, and over 1,000 were missing in action. Some 150,000 Americans were seriously wounded. (see August 15, 1973)

Charles Manson

March 29 Peace Love Activism

March 29, 1971, a jury in Los Angeles recommended the death penalty for Charles Manson and three followers [Susan Atkins, Patricia Krenwinkel, and Leslie Van Houten} for the 1969 Tate-La Bianca murders. (The sentences were later commuted.) (see Apr 19)

Native Americans

Wounded Knee II
March 29, 1973: a cease-fire between Indians holding Wounded Knee and the Government forces surrounding the historic Indian site entered its third day this afternoon as Government negotiators tried to set up a meeting tomorrow to resolve the month-long impasse. (see Native Americans, April 18, 1973)

AIDS

Ryan White

March 29 Peace Love Activism

March 29, 1990: several months before his high school class graduated and before his senior prom, White entered Riley Hospital for Children in Indianapolis with a respiratory infection. (see April 8)

Women’s Health

James Charles Kopp

March 29 Peace Love Activism

March 29, 2001: French authorities arrested James Charles Kopp, the assassin of Dr  Barnett Slepian, in the town of Dinan, Brittany. (see May 9, 2003)

Environmental Issues

Pegasus Pipeline
March 29, 2013: the Pegasus Pipeline spill happened and resulted in Canadian heavy crude being released into the community of Mayflower, Arkansas, flowing through yards and streets. Oil entered a creek, wetlands and a cover at Lake Conway. (EI, see January 10, 2014; Mayflower, see April 22, 2015)

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