Richard Nixon Watergate Scandal

Richard Nixon Watergate Scandal

Richard Nixon Watergate Scandal

With the recent indictments as a result of the investigation by Robert S. Mueller, some of us can be excused for recalling another President for whom some of his associates faced indictments. 

Nixon's Watergate Scandal is a long story and whether Mueller's investigation will go as long or as deep remains to be seen, but here is the chronology of Nixon's predicament that led to his resignation.

I will briefly include two other incidents that occurred during this time: the resignation of Nixon's Vice President, Spiro T Agnew, and the publication of the so-called Pentagon Papers.

The improbable election

Richard Nixon Watergate Scandal

November 5, 1968: Richard Milhous Nixon, the 55-year-old former vice president who lost the presidency for the Republicans in 1960, reclaimed it by defeating Hubert Humphrey in one of the closest elections in U.S. history.

 1971

February 16, 1971: Nixon began secret recordings using a newly installed taping system in White House. (see June 13 below)

September 3, 1971: the White House "plumbers" unit - named for their orders to plug leaks in the administration - burglarized a psychiatrist's office to find files on Daniel Ellsberg, the former defense analyst who leaked the Pentagon Papers.

 1972

May 28, 1972: bugging equipment is installed at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate hotel and office complex in Washington DC. 


June 17, 1972: at 2:30 in the morning, police arrested five burglars in the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office and apartment complex in Washington, D.C. James McCord, Frank Sturgis, Bernard Barker, Virgilio Gonzalez, and Eugenio Martinez after a security guard at the Watergate noticed that several doors leading from the stairwell to various hallways had been taped to prevent them from locking. The intruders wore surgical gloves and carried walkie-talkies, cameras, and almost $2,300 in sequential $100 bills. A subsequent search of their rooms at the Watergate turned up an additional $4,200, burglary tools, and electronic bugging equipment.

June 19, 1972: a GOP security aide is among the Watergate burglars, The Washington Post reported. Former attorney general John Mitchell, head of the Nixon reelection campaign, denied any link to the operation.

June 23, 1972: President Nixon had a conversation with his Chief of Staff, H R Haldeman. Two years later, the tape of the conversation was released, following an order by the Supreme Court. The Smoking Gun tape revealed that Nixon had ordered the FBI to abandon its investigation of the Watergate break-in. (transcript of video )

August 1, 1972: the Washington Post reported that a $25,000 cashier's check, apparently earmarked for the Nixon campaign, wound up in the bank account of a Watergate burglar.

August 30, 1972: Nixon claimed that White House counsel John Dean had conducted an investigation into the Watergate matter and found that no-one from the White House was involved.

September 15, 1972: the first indictments in Watergate were made against the burglars: James W. McCord, Frank Sturgis, Bernard Barker, Eugenio Martinez and Virgilio Gonzalez. Indictments are also made against E. Howard Hunt and G. Gordon Liddy.

September 29, 1972: the Washington Post reported that John Mitchell, while serving as attorney general, controlled a secret Republican fund used to finance widespread intelligence-gathering operations against the Democrats.

October 10, 1972: the Washington Post reported that FBI agents had established that the Watergate break-in stemmed from a massive campaign of political spying and sabotage conducted on behalf of the Nixon reelection effort.

Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward were two young Washington Post reporters who were covering the expanding story. During October and until November 1963, the reporters met with an informant code named "Deep Throat" who provided much of the vital information that led to Nixon himself. (see 



November 7, 1972: Nixon reelected in one of the largest landslides in American political history, taking more than 60 percent of the vote and crushing the Democratic nominee, Sen. George McGovern of South Dakota.
1972 (55.22% voter age turnout*)
Candidate Popular vote % popular vote Electoral vote % electoral vote
Richard Nixon 47,168,710 60.67% 520 96.7%
George McGovern 29,173,222

(-17,995,488)

37.52% 17 3.2%
* first time that 18 year olds were eligible to vote in presidential election
November 22, 1972: Walter Cronkite devoted 15 minutes to Watergate on the CBS Evening News. The scandal becomes a mainstream media issue.

 January 1973

January 3. 1973: The United States v Anthony Joseph Russo and Daniel Ellsberg trial began in Los Angeles. Meanwhile, hearings and trials associated with the Watergate break-in begin in Washington, D.C.

January 8, 1973: in Washington, DC, the trial of the Watergate Seven (Bernard Barker, Virgilio Gonzalez, E Howard Hunt, G Gordon Liddy, Eugenio Martinez, James McCord and Frank Sturgis) began in Washington with Judge John Sirica presiding.

January 11, 1972: E Howard Hunt pleads guilty.

January 15, 1972: Bernard Barker, Virgilio Gonzalez, Eugenio Martinez and Frank Sturgis plead guilty.

1973

January 30, 1973: former Nixon aides G. Gordon Liddy and James W. McCord Jr. convicted of conspiracy, burglary and wiretapping in the Watergate incident. (NYT article

February 7, 1973: the Senate voted (70-0) to create the Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities. The Committee is chaired by Senator Sam Ervin (Democrat, North Carolina). Ervin cultivated a folksy image as a country lawyer, but his supervision of this committee is crucial to the outcome. His deputy is Senator Howard Baker (Republican, Tennessee). (NYT article)  

March 23, 1973: in a letter to Judge John Sirica, Watergate burglar James W. McCord Jr. claimed that the defendants had pleaded guilty under duress. He says they committed perjury and that others are involved in the Watergate break-in. He claims that the burglars lied at the urging of John Dean, Counsel to the President, and John Mitchell, the Attorney-General. These allegations of a cover-up and obstruction of justice by the highest law officers in the land blew Watergate wide open. (link to letter

April 1973

April 6, 1973: John Dean, the White House Counsel, began to co-operate with the Watergate prosecutors.

April 17, 1973: Nixon announced that White House staff would appear before the Senate Committee. He promised “major new developments” in the investigation and said there had been real progress towards finding the truth.

April 17, 1973: an official statement from the White House claimed Nixon had no prior knowledge of the Watergate affair.

April 22, 1973 (Easter Sunday): Nixon asked John Dean to prepare a report about the Watergate affair. He sent Dean to Camp David to write the report.

April 30, 1973: Nixon appears on national television and announced the dismissal of Dean and the resignations of Haldeman and Erlichman, describing them as two of his “closest advisers”. The Attorney-General, Richard Kleindienst, also resigned and was replaced by Elliot Richardson. (transcript)  

 May 1973

May 4, 1973: Nixon appoints General Alexander Haig as White House Chief of Staff, in place of Haldeman.

 May 18, 1973: the Senate Watergate committee began its nationally televised hearings. Attorney General-designate Elliot Richardson selected former solicitor general Archibald Cox as the Justice Department's special prosecutor for Watergate. May 25, 1973: the former Solicitor-General, Archibald Cox, is sworn in as the Justice Department’s special prosecutor for Watergate. Attorney General-designate Elliot Richardson nominated him.

 June 1973

June 3, 1973: the Washington Post reported that John Dean told Watergate investigators that he discussed the Watergate cover-up with President Nixon at least 35 times

June 13, 1973: the Washington Post reported that Watergate prosecutors had found a memo addressed to John Ehrlichman describing in detail the plans to burglarize the office of Pentagon Papers defendant Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist,  

June 13, 1973: Alexander Butterfield, former presidential appointments secretary, revealed in congressional testimony that since 1971 Nixon had recorded all conversations and telephone calls in his offices.

June 23, 1973: Nixon's adviser, H.R. Haldeman, told the president to put pressure on the head of the FBI to "stay the hell out of this [Watergate burglary investigation] business." In essence, Haldeman was telling Nixon to obstruct justice.

June 26, 1973: former White House counsel John W. Dean told the Senate Watergate Committee about an "enemies list" kept by the Nixon White House.
Richard Nixon Watergate Scandal
cartoon by Ted Strickland
June 27, 1973: CBS reporter Daniel Schorr obtained a copy of Nixon’s infamous “enemies list” and read names from the list live on CBS television. In the midst of reading, he discovered that his own name was on the list. The “enemies list” was one of the abuses of power by the Nixon administration that were exposed as a result of the Watergate scandal and which eventually led to Nixon’s resignation. In fact, there was no single list, but several different versions that continued to grow in length.

Names on the original “enemies list” included reporter Daniel Schorr (number 17), actor Paul Newman, columnist Mary McGrory, labor union leader Leonard Woodcock, and African-American Congressmen John Conyers (Detroit) and Ron Dellums (Oakland).

Richard Nixon Watergate Scandal
June 27, 1973: John Lennon (still in the process of appealing his deportation) and Yoko Ono attended Watergate Hearings.

 July 1973

July 7, 1973: Nixon told the Senate Committee that he would not testify before it and would not grant access to Presidential documents, claiming Executive Privilege.

July 16, 1973: former White House aide Alexander Butterfield informs the United States Senate Watergate Committee that President Richard Nixon had secretly recorded potentially incriminating conversations.

July 18, 1973: Nixon reportedly ordered the White House taping system disconnected.

July 23, 1973: The Senate Committee and Archibald Cox demand that Nixon hand over a range of White House tapes and documents. Nixon refused.

July 26, 1973: the Watergate Committee subpoenas several White House tapes.

 August 1973

 August  8, 1973: Vice President Spiro T. Agnew branded as "damned lies" reports he had taken kickbacks from government contracts in Maryland and vowed not to resign. (see Oct 10)

August 9, 1973: the Senate Committee took legal action against Nixon for failure to comply with the subpoena.

August 15, 1973: Nixon delivered a second on Watergate. He claimed executive privilege for the tapes and argued that he should not have to hand them over. Archibald Cox and the Senate Watergate committee request that the Supreme Court instruct Nixon to surrender the tapes. 

August 29, 1973: Judge Sirica ordered Nixon to hand over 9 tapes for Sirica to review in private. This was the first of a number of court battles that Nixon is to lose. (NYT article)

October 1973

 October 10, 1973: Spiro Agnew resigned the vice presidency and appeared in US District Court in Baltimore on the same day to plead nolo contendere to a single federal count of failing to report on his income-tax return $29,500 in income.

October 12, 1973: following the October 10 resignation of vice president Sprio Agnew, Nixon nominated House Minority Leader Gerald R. Ford, R-Mich., to succeed Agnew as vice president.

At the same time, the US Circuit Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia upheld Judge Sirica’s ruling that Nixon should surrender tape recordings relevant to Watergate.

October 19, 1973: Nixon offered a compromise to the Senate Watergate Committee, proposing that the Democratic Senator from Mississippi, John Stennis, be permitted to listen to the tapes and prepare summaries for Special Prosecutor Cox.
October 20, 1973: “Saturday Night Massacre”: Solicitor General Robert Bork fired Watergate Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox at the direction of President Richard Nixon after Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Assistant Attorney General Ruckelshaus had refused and resigned. 

October 23, 1973: Nixon agreed to turn White House tape recordings requested by the Watergate special prosecutor over to Judge John J. Sirica.

November 1973

November 1, 1973: Leon Jaworski is named as the new Watergate Special Prosecutor.

November 17, 1973: President Nixon told an Associated Press managing editors meeting in Orlando, Fla., that ``people have got to know whether or not their president is a crook. Well, I'm not a crook.'' 

November 21, 1973: President Richard Nixon's attorney, J. Fred Buzhardt, revealed the existence of an 18 1/2-minute gap in one of the White House tape recordings related to Watergate. (2014 Washington Post article)

November 26, 1973: President Richard Nixon's personal secretary, Rose Mary Woods, told a federal court that she'd accidentally caused part of the 18 1/2-minute gap in a key Watergate tape. 

November 27, 1973: the Senate voted 92–3 to confirm Gerald Ford as Vice President. 

December 1973

December 6, 1973: the House of Representatives voted 387–35 to confirm Gerald Ford as Vice President; he was sworn in the same day.

December 7, 1973: the White House can't explain the 18 1/2 -minute gap in one of the subpoenaed tapes. Chief of staff Alexander Haig said one theory was that "some sinister force" erased the segment. 
Richard Nixon Watergate Scandal

1974

January 4, 1974: citing executive privilege, Nixon refused to surrender 500 tapes and documents which have been subpoenaed by the Senate Watergate Committee.

February 6, 1974: The House of Representatives voted to authorize the House Judiciary Committee to investigate whether grounds exist for the impeachment of President Nixon.

March 1, 1974: seven people, including former Nixon White House aides H.R. Haldeman and John D. Ehrlichman, former Attorney General John Mitchell and former assistant Attorney General Robert Mardian, were indicted on charges of conspiring to obstruct justice.

April 16, 1974: Special Prosecutor Jaworski issued a subpoena for 64 White House tapes.

April 30, 1974: the White House released more than 1,200 pages of edited transcripts of the Nixon tapes to the House Judiciary Committee, but the committee insisted that the tapes themselves must be turned over.

May 9, 1974: The House of Representatives Judiciary Committee opened formal and public impeachment hearings against Nixon. 

July 1974

July 24. 1974: the Supreme Court ruled unanimously that Nixon must turn over the tape recordings of 64 White House conversations, rejecting the president's claims of executive privilege. (text of order via NY Times)

July 25, 1974: Barbara Jordan, a Democratic Party member of the House Judiciary Committee, makes a famous speech reminding her colleagues of the constitutional basis for impeachment of the President.

 July 27, 1974: The House Judiciary Committee adopted the first Article of Impeachment by a vote of 27-11, with 6 Republicans voting with the Democrats. The Article charges Nixon with obstruction of the investigation of the Watergate break-in. July 29, 1974: the House Judiciary Committee adopts the second Article of Impeachment that charges Nixon with misuse of power and violation of his oath of office. July 30, 1974: Nixon released subpoenaed White House recordings--suspected to prove his guilt in the Watergate cover-up--to special prosecutor Leon Jaworski.  The same day, the House Judiciary Committee voted the third article of impeachment against the president: contempt of Congress in hindering the impeachment process. The previous two impeachment articles voted against Nixon by the committee were obstruction of justice and abuse of presidential powers.

August 1974

August 5, 1974: the "smoking gun" tape of June 23, 1972, was revealed, in which U.S. President Richard M. Nixon and White House Chief of Staff H.R. Haldeman discuss using the CIA to block a Federal Bureau of Investigation inquiry into Watergate. Nixon's support in Congress collapses.

 August 7, 1974: Three senior Republican congressmen meet with Nixon, advising him that his chances of avoiding impeachment by the House and removal from office by the Senate are “gloomy”.  Around the country, calls mount for Nixon’s resignation, and speculation builds about Nixon’s intentions. August 8, 1974: President Richard M. Nixon announced his resignation effective Aug 9 . August 9, 1974: Gerald Ford becomes president.

 Aftermath

Richard Nixon Watergate Scandal

September 8, 1974: though never indicted of any crimes, Gerald Ford gave an unconditional pardon to Richard Nixon.  

October 4, 1974: the trial of Watergate conspirators HR Haldeman, John Erlichman, John Mitchell, Robert Mardian, and Kenneth Parkinson began, Judge John Sirica presiding.

December 19, 1974: Nelson A. Rockefeller sworn in as vice president, replacing Gerald R. Ford, who became president when Richard M. Nixon resigned.

January 27, 1975: in the wake of the Watergate scandal and the attendant abuses of power by the Nixon administration, and also recent revelations of illegal CIA spying on Americans [in The New York Times on December 22, 1974], the Senate created the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with respect to the Intelligence Agencies. Known as the Church Committee after its chair, Senator Frank Church (D–Idaho), the committee held public hearings about abuses by the intelligence agencies, and eventually published 14 reports on violations of the rights of American citizens by the intelligence agencies. The vote to create the committee was 82–4, indicating the depth of disgust over alleged abuses by the FBI and the CIA in the Senate.

The Church Committee reports are still an extremely valuable resource on the history of violations of American rights in the twentieth century. The Church Committee was paralleled by the Pike Committee, created by the House of Representatives on February 19, 1975. Following the revelations about the CIA by the Times, President Gerald Ford tried to head off Congressional investigations by creating the Rockefeller Commission to investigate the CIA on January 4, 1975, but that effort failed when Congress created the two committees.

The Church Committee hearings created sensation after sensation, with revelations of CIA assassination plots, and more. The Church Committee reports are still an invaluable source of information about the abuses of the CIA, the FBI, and other federal agencies. The reports also document the involvement of presidents, both Republican and Democratic, in approving many if not most of the abuses by the intelligence agencies.

February 21, 1975: former US Attorney General John N. Mitchell, and former White House aides H. R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman, were sentenced to between 30 months and 8 years in prison.

October 28, 1976: John Ehrlichman entered the Swift Trail Federal Prison Camp in Safford, Arizona on October 28, 1976 and was released on April 27, 1978. He died of diabetes-related complications at his home in Atlanta, Georgia on February 14, 1999.

June 21, 1977: HR Haldeman, former White House chief of staff, entered prison. He will be paroled on On December 20, 1978, after serving 18 months. Haldeman will die on November 12, 1993 of abdominal cancer after refusing medical treatment in accordance with his Christian Science beliefs.

June 22, 1977: John N. Mitchell became the first former U.S. Attorney General to go to prison as he began serving a sentence for his role in the Watergate cover-up. After serving 19 months, Mitchell was released on parole for medical reasons on January 19, 1979. He was the only US attorney general to serve a prison sentence. Mitchell died November 9, 1988.

April 12, 1996: historian, Stanley I. Kutler won a legal victory that would lead to the slow but steady release of more than 3,000 hours of secretly recorded Nixon White House tapes. In a deal struck with the estate of former President Richard M. Nixon and the National Archives, the first set of the tapes -- more than 200 hours chronicling the abuses of power known collectively as the Watergate scandals – were to be released by November, 1996. The agreement came 21 years after Congress ordered that the tapes be made public.

Kutler his lawyer, Alan Morrison of the advocacy group Public Citizen, and the National Archivist, John Carlin, said that the rest of the tapes, which cover almost everything of importance that Mr. Nixon and his aides said at the White House, at the Old Executive Office Building next door and at Camp David, Md., from February 1971 to July 1973, when their existence was disclosed, will gradually be released in the coming years. (NYT article)
May 31, 2005: W. Mark Felt’s family ended 30 years of speculation, identifying Felt, the former FBI assistant director, as “Deep Throat,” the secret source who helped unravel the Watergate scandal. The Felt family’s admission, made in an article in Vanity Fair magazine, took reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, who had promised to keep their source’s identity a secret until his death, by surprise. Tapes show that Nixon himself had speculated that Felt was the secret informant as early as 1973.
Richard Nixon Watergate Scandal
Watergate Investigation marker approved by Arlington Co, VA in 2008 and erected in 2011.
July 29, 2011 U.S. District Judge Royce Lamberth granted a request by historian Stanley Kutler, and others to unseal the testimony given by President Richard Nixon on June 23 and 24 in 1975. Nixon had been questioned about the political scandal during the 1970s that resulted from the break-in of the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington. 

Lamberth ruled in the 15-page opinion that the special circumstances, especially the undisputed historical interest in Nixon's testimony, far outweighed the need to keep the records secret. "Watergate significance in American history cannot be overstated," Lamberth wrote, adding that the scandal continues to attract both scholarly and public interest. "The disclosure of President Nixon's grand jury testimony would likely enhance the existing historical record, foster scholarly discussion and improve the public's understanding of a significant historical event," he said.

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Black Nationalist Marcus Garvey

Black Nationalist Marcus Garvey

Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr was born on August 17, 1887 in St Ann's Bay, Jamaica. Though poor, his father had a large library from which Garvey first developed a love of reading.

In his 20s, Garvey traveled throughout the Central American region, first in Costa Rica where he worked for a newspaper. Later he did the same in Panama.

He returned to Jamaica in 1912, but soon left to attend Birkbeck College in the United Kingdom (keep in mind that Jamaica was at the time part of the British Empire) where he continued to be involved in publications. He also began to speak publicly about Black Nationalism.

As the diJamaica site states: Garvey thought that the only way blacks could take their rightful place in history was in a secure African homeland, where they could develop their own culture and civilization. He was convinced that blacks would always be dominated by whites if they remained as minority groups scattered throughout white-dominated countries.
Back to Jamaica thence to the USA

July 20, 1914: Garvey returned to Jamaica and there he and Amy Ashwood founded the  Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League in Jamaica. The U.N.I.A. was originally conceived as a benevolent or fraternal reform association dedicated to racial uplift and the establishment of educational and industrial opportunities for blacks.

In a 1923 Current History article, Garvey explained, Where did the name of the organization come from? It was while speaking to a West Indian Negro who was a passenger with me from Southampton, who was returning home to the West Indies from Basutoland with his Basuto wife, I further learned of the horrors of native life in Africa. He related to me in conversation such horrible and pitiable tales that my heart bled within me. Retiring from the conversation to my cabin, all day and the following night I pondered over the subject matter of that conversation, and at midnight, lying flat on my back, the vision and thought came to me that I should name the organization the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities (Imperial) League. Such a name I thought would embrace the purpose of all black humanity. Thus to the world a name was born, a movement created, and a man became known.

March 23, 1916: Garvey arrived in America penniless, moved in with a Jamaican family in Harlem, New York City, and found work as a printer. He gained a following for his movement by speaking nightly as a soapbox orator on a Harlem street corner. 

April 25, 1916: Garvey visited W.E.B. Du Bois, the editor of The Crisis, the magazine of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. 

In May - June 1916: Garvey began a year-long, 38-state speaking tour that takes him across America.

In May 1917:  Garvey returned to New York after completing his U.S. speaking tour. Thirteen members joined to form the New York branch of the Universal Negro Improvement Association. 

July 8, 1917: delivered an address, "The Conspiracy of the East St. Louis Riots," at Lafayette Hall in Harlem, in which he stated that the riot was "one of the bloodiest outrages against mankind." (St Louis race revolt, see July 2, 1917)
US Government surveillance 
June 3, 1918: the Federal Bureau of Investigation learned via a written report that Garvey spoke nightly at outdoor meetings on a Harlem street corner.

Black Nationalist Marcus Garvey

August  17, 1918: the first issue of The Negro World, the official publication of the Universal Negro Improvement Association, published. 

February – August 1919: copies of The Negro World confiscated by authorities in various countries. It was banned by the governor of Belize, called seditious by the governor of Trinidad, and seized by the government of British Guiana. The acting governor of Jamaica ordered the postmaster to open and detain copies of the newspaper.
Black Star Line

Black Nationalist Marcus Garvey

April 27, 1919:  Garvey announced his plan to start the Black Star Line. The Black Star Line was to be the U.N.I.A.'s vehicle for promoting worldwide commerce among black communities. In Garvey's vision, Black Star Line ships would transport manufactured goods, raw materials, and produce among black businesses in North America, the Caribbean, and Africa, and become the linchpin in a global black economy.

June 23, 1919: Garvey assists with the incorporation of the Black Star Line, the Universal Negro Improvement Association's vehicle for promoting worldwide commerce among black communities. In Garvey's vision, Black Star Line ships would transport manufactured goods, raw materials, and produce among black businesses in North America, the Caribbean, and Africa, and become the linchpin in a global black economy. 

August 25, 1919: Garvey held a mass meeting at Carnegie Hall in New York to promote the sale of Black Star Line stock. 

October 11, 1919:  with the goal of deporting Garvey firmly in mind, J Edgar Hoover wrote a memo suggesting that investigators pursue the idea of prosecuting Garvey for fraud, in connection with his Black Star Line activities. 

October 14, 1919: a George Tyler burst into Garvey’s Harlem office by kicking in the downstairs door and demanding an audience. When Garvey went to investigate, Tyler opened fire. Garvey was struck once in the scalp and twice in the leg but was shielded from further injury by Amy Ashwood.

After a scuffle, Tyler ran off but was arrested.  The next day, Tyler reportedly tried to escape by jumping through a window but fell 30 feet to his death. Some historians consider his death a homicide.

Despite being bandaged and still recovering from the wounds, Garvey made it to a speaking engagement in Philadelphia the next day, solidifying his growing support.
Black Nationalist Marcus Garvey
January 23, 1920: Garvey incorporated The Negro Factories Corporation, the finance arm of the Universal Negro Improvement Association. A cornerstone of Garvey's vision for black economic independence, he created the NFC with the goal of supporting businesses that would employ African Americans and produce goods to be sold to black consumers. Garvey envisioned a string of black-owned factories, retailers, services and other businesses, and hoped that the corporation would eventually be strong enough to power and sustain an all-black economy with worldwide significance.
Black Nationalist Marcus Garvey
August 1 > 31, 1920: the Universal Negro Improvement Association held its first International Convention of the Negro Peoples of the World at Madison Square Garden and scheduled a massive parade in Harlem. During this convention, the UNIA adopted and signed a Declaration of Rights of the Negro Peoples of the World, adopts a "nation" flag with the colors of the Red, Black, and Green, and elects officials for its provisional government. The convention elected Garvey  the first Provisional President of Africa.
Garvey arrested and found guilty

Black Nationalist Marcus Garvey

January 12, 1922: Garvey arrested for fraudulent use of mails; he is held on a $2,500 bond pending presentation of his case to a federal grand jury.

Black Nationalist Marcus Garvey

February 7, 1923: Edward Young Clarke. Imperial Giant of the Ku Klux Klan, came New York City from Atlanta, GA and appeared before the Federal Grand Jury as a witness against Garvey. who would to be tried on Feb. 20 on a charge of defrauding investors in the Black Star Line.

June 17, 1923: two days before his trial ended with a guilty verdict, Garvey spoke to a crowd at Liberty Hall in New York City. Here is the beginning of that speech:

Among the many names by which I have been called, I was dubbed by another name a couple days ago.  The district Attorney, with whom I have been contesting the case for my liberty and for the existence of the Universal Negro Improvement Association, in his fervid appeal, in his passionate appeal, to the gentlemen of the jury last Friday cried out: “Gentlemen, will you let the tiger loose?

The tiger is already loose, and he has been at large for so long that it is no longer one tiger, but there are many tigers.  The spirit of the Universal Negro Improvement Association has, fortunately for us, made a circuit of the world, to the extent that harm of injury done to any one, will in no way affect the great membership of this association or retard its great program.  The world is ignorant of the purpose of this association.  The world is ignorant of the scope of this great movement, when it things that by laying low any one individual it can permanently silence this great spiritual wave, that has taken hold of the souls and the hearts and minds of 4000,000,000 Negroes throughout the world.  We have only started; we are just on our way; we have just made the first lap in the great race for existence, and for a place in the political and economic sun of men.

Black Nationalist Marcus Garvey

June 21, 1923: Garvey sentenced to 5 years in prison for mail fraud. He remained free on bail but on...

February 8, 1925...



June 8, 1927: Malcolm X's father, Earl Little, a follower of Marcus Garvey, appealed to President Coolidge for Garvey's release.
Commutation and deportation
November 18, 1927: President Coolidge commuted Garvey’s sentence. Garvey was released from the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary and taken to New Orleans for deportation. (NYT article)
Jamaica, London and Garvey’s last days

Black Nationalist Marcus Garvey

In 1935, Garvey moved to London where on June 10, 1940, he died.  (NYT story)
Black Nationalist Marcus Garvey 
November 10, 1964: Garvey’s body was returned to Jamaica. The following day he was declared the country's first national hero. He is buried in the Marcus Garvey Memorial, National Heroes' Park, Kingston, Jamaica.

The Jamaican government has repeatedly tried, but failed, to have the US government exonerate Garvey's name.

Black Nationalist Marcus Garvey 

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Incredible String Band Rose Simpson

Incredible String Band Rose Simpson

The vision of hippies and the sounds their music made included a wide range of styles. The Incredible String Band's style certainly fits within that range, albeit, at the edge.

Folk with an edge.

The Incredible String Band did not make it into the Woodstock movie or onto the Woodstock triple album [it did make it onto the expanded 25th anniversary CD]. If it had, they, like other performers who did make it, would likely have enjoyed a bump in their popularity and benefited financially from increased album sales.

Having said that, I'm not sure that the ISB members ever intended to find a path to rock-stardom. Success, surely, but super-stardom?

Rose Simpson

Incredible String Band Rose Simpson

Rose Simpson was one of ISRs four members performing at that Bethel, NY Saturday evening. From the Herald Scotland siteSimpson has mixed feelings about the biggest gig in her life. “We could have done better, “ she says. “It was a disaster, really. By the time we played on Saturday, the crowd wasn’t in the mood to hear contemplative songs. It is uncomfortable when you see you’re only getting through to one in a hundred.”

Simpson recalls that the Friday afternoon at Woodstock was “like a big party”. “We spent the afternoon eating strawberries and cream, talking and laughing, splashing in the creek,” she says. “It was lovely. But then the rain came, the atmosphere changed, the roads were blocked and we were trapped. We couldn’t get away to a hotel, the organisers threw tents at us. Before I met the String Band, I used to do a lot of winter climbing in Scotland, so I was used to discomfort. It was damp and miserable, like camping in the rain in Glencoe.”

A quick online search reveals a picture of Simpson from the time, wearing a floaty white diaphanous dress and nothing else. “There was a lot of nudity, but when I see the pictures of myself there’s a certain innocence about it,” she says. “It wasn’t a come-on, it wasn’t like many pop singers today – a lot of that is just porn. It was part of the thing at the time, that women could dress as we pleased. It wasn’t a sexual thing. We were saying we were free.”

Woodstock had a lifelong effect on Simpson, and left her feeling that nothing could ever rival the sensation. “It wasn’t our best performance, but it was still an amazing experience – the high of highs,” she recalls. “There is nothing like playing to a crowd that big. There is nothing else you can do in life that comes even close.”
Incredible String Band Rose Simpson
Simpson was born in Otley, Yorkshire and studied at the University of York. She met Robin Williamson and Mike Heron in 1968. At first she became Heron's girlfriend, then she became a member of the band.

According to the band's manager, Joe Boyd, "The day Robin proposed that Christina Licorice Mckechnie join the group, Mike went out and bought Rose an electric bass. 'Learn this,' he said, 'you're in the group now, too.'"

Incredible String Band Rose Simpson

She stayed with the group until 1971 and was on six of their albums: The Hangman's Beautiful Daughter (1968), The Big Huge (1969),  Changing Horses (1969), I Looked Up (1970), Be Glad for the Song Has No Ending (1970), and Smiling Men with Bad Reputations (1971). She left professional music after that and settled in Wales where at one point she was the Lady Mayoress of Aberystwyth.

Out of the limited limelight that she was in, Rose continues to live in Wales.

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