June 10 Peace Love Activism
DEATH PENALTY & Feminism
June 10, 1692: Chief Justice William Stoughton condemned Bridget Bishop of Salem for witchcraft after the special Court of Oyer, "to hear," and Terminer, "to decide," convened in Salem, Massachusetts. (see September 22)
June 10, 1935: Bill Wilson and Dr. Bob Smith found Alcoholics Anonymous in Akron, Ohio. (see June 4, 1937)
US Labor History
Republic Steel pays vigilantes
June 10, 1937: in an effort to break the picket line by striking steelworkers at Newton Steel – a subsidiary of Republic Steel – in Monroe, Michigan, city leaders deputized a vigilante mob who attack the strikers with tear gas and clubs. Eight people were injured and hospitalized. An inquiry later revealed that Republic Steel had paid the city for the purchase of the weapons. (see June 19)
Anderson v. Mt. Clemens Pottery Co
June 10, 1946: the US Supreme Court held that preliminary work activities, where controlled by the employer and performed entirely for the employer's benefit, are properly included as working time under Fair Labor Standards Act. This decision is known as the "portal to portal case,” i.e., door to door: the worker’s presence inside the workplace can typically be considered time they should be compensated for. (see Nov 25)
The Equal Pay Act of 1963
June 10, 1963: President Kennedy signed The Equal Pay Act of 1963 prohibited discrimination in wages on the basis of sex. The result: women's earnings will climb from 62% of men's in 1970 to 80% in 2004 (LH, see December 31, 1964; F, see July 2, 1964)
June 10, 1940: Garvey died in London. (BH, see June 21; Garvey, see November 10, 1964)
Fighting school desegregation
June 10, 1954: governors and representatives from twelve Southern states met in Richmond, Virginia, and resolved not to voluntarily comply with the United States Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education, released less than a month earlier. Virginia Governor Thomas Stanley called the meeting to discuss potential approaches the Southern states could take in responding to Brown. The governors of Georgia, South Carolina, and Mississippi had publicly stated their intent to maintain the separation of white and black students, even if it required them to dissolve the public education systems in their respective states. The governors of Louisiana, North Carolina, and Virginia had been less radical but had expressed an interest in legal methods of avoiding integration.
Representatives met for six hours to discuss their concerns. In the end, only representatives from Maryland, West Virginia, and Kentucky - states with comparatively small African American populations - indicated they would comply with the desegregation order.
Said Governor Stanley of the meeting, "No one had any thought of doing anything wrong. Everyone is just trying to find a solution to what they consider a major problem." It was not until a later meeting of Southern governors, in January 1956, that Southern officials created a concrete plan for resisting Brown. At that meeting, four Southern governors agreed to interposition, by which a state can attempt to declare federal actions unconstitutional. (BH, see July 11; SD, see Aug 23)
June 10, 1964: the U.S. Senate voted to limit further debate on a proposed civil rights bill, shutting off a filibuster by southern lawmakers. (BH & VR, see June 14; Civil Rights Act, see June 19)
Ben Chester White
June 10, 1966: three Klansmen approached Ben Chester White at his home near Natchez, Mississippi, and asked for him help in finding a lost dog. The men drove White, a 67-year old sharecropper, to the Homochitto National Forest, where they shot him repeatedly, then dumped his body over a bridge into the creek bed below.
The three men, Ernest Avants , Claude Fuller, and James Lloyd Jones, had allegedly killed White in an attempt to lure Martin Luther King, Jr. to Natchez, Mississippi. Ernest Avants was tried in 1967 but acquitted.
In 2003, the New York Times described Chester this way: Ben Chester White used twists of wire to hold the soles on his shoes, patched his own clothes with scrap and said "yes, sir," to white men, and when he made a little money, he wrapped the $1 bills in wax paper so they would not be ruined by his own sweat. He was not registered to vote, and had never fought against the segregation that was as much a fact of life for him as a hoe handle or cotton sack. (White, see Feb, 2003; BH, see June 11; MLK, see Aug 5)
James Earl Ray escapes
June 10, 1977: Ray, the convicted assassin of Martin Luther King Jr., escaped from Brushy Mountain State Prison in Tennessee with six others; he was recaptured Jun 13. (see Feb 15, 1978)
June 10, 1963: at the commencement of American University President Kennedy spoke about service to country, but particularly about nuclear disarmament and announced that the US would stop above ground atomic testing as long as the other nuclear nations also did so. [JFK’s speech] (see June 20)
June 10 Music et al
June 10 - 11, 1966: the Dead played the Avalon Ballroom in San Francisco The poster’s central image was a drawing of a skeleton with a disproportionately large skull. The skeleton is very smartly dressed, wearing a cowboy hat and smoking a cigar. This poster is significant historically because it represents the first use of a skeleton as an emblem for the Grateful Dead. It predates the iconic Skeleton and Roses poster by Mouse Studios by several months which eventually became the signature of the Grateful Dead. (see Sept 16)
June 10 – 11, 1967: the KFRC Fantasy Fair and Magic Mountain Music Festival was held at the 4,000 seat Sidney B. Cushing Memorial Amphitheatre on the face of Mount Tamalpais in Marin County, CA. At least 36,000 people attended the two-day concert and fair that was one of the first in a series of San Francisco area events that became known as the Summer of Love.
Admission to the festival was $2.00 and all proceeds were donated to the nearby Hunters Point Child Care Center in San Francisco.
The Fantasy Fair was The Doors' first large show and happened during the rise of the group's first major hit, "Light My Fire.” The Festival was favorably reviewed for safety in contemporary press accounts. Fights or disturbances were not an issue, and at the end of the day, trash was placed in or next to the garbage cans provided, and the crowd left the Mount Tamalpais as they found it.
In a foreshadowing of dark events to come at the 1969 Altamont Free Concert, this festival was rumored to be the first to employ Hells Angels motorcycle club members as security guards. Although Jefferson Airplane asked Hells Angels members to escort them from San Francisco to the venue, which they did without incident, the Hells Angels did not actually provide security for the event.
While the highly documented Monterey International Pop Festival continues to be remembered as the seminal event of the 1967 Summer of Love, the KFRC Festival took place one week before and was, by many accounts, the first rock festival in history. (see June 16)
June 10, 1986: Garcia went into a five day diabetic coma, resulting in the band withdrawing from their current tour. (see July 29, 1987)
Stop and Frisk Policy
Terry v. Ohio
June 10, 1968: the U.S. Supreme Court established a legal basis for officers to stop, question and frisk citizens. The Court held that the Fourth Amendment prohibition on unreasonable searches and seizures was not violated when a police officer stopped a suspect on the street and frisked him without probable cause to arrest, if the police officer had a reasonable suspicion that the person has committed, was committing, or was about to commit a crime and has a reasonable belief that the person "may be armed and presently dangerous." (S & F: see Sept 1, 1971; 4th, see January 26, 1971)
Whren v. United States
June 10, 1996: the US Supreme Court unanimously "declared that any traffic offense committed by a driver was a legitimate legal basis for a stop."
The case's Supreme Court syllabus stated that the court held that "the temporary detention of a motorist upon probable cause to believe that he has violated the traffic laws does not violate the Fourth Amendment's prohibition against unreasonable seizures, even if a reasonable officer would not have stopped the motorist absent some additional law enforcement objective." In other words, it does not matter if the traffic stop was pretextual, so long as there was independent justification for the stop. (see October 26, 2001)
June 10 Peace Love Activism
June 10, 1990: the Central Intelligence Agency played an important role in the arrest in 1962 of Nelson Mandela. The intelligence service, using an agent inside the African National Congress, provided South African security officials with precise information about Mr. Mandela's activities that enabled the police to arrest him. The report quoted an unidentified retired official who said that a senior C.I.A. officer told him shortly after Mr. Mandela's arrest: ''We have turned Mandela over to the South African Security branch. We gave them every detail, what he would be wearing, the time of day, just where he would be.'' (see December 20, 1991)
Dissolution of Yugoslavia
June 10, 1999: Yugoslav troops begin leaving Kosovo, prompting NATO to suspend its punishing 78-day air war. (see June 12)
Sexual Abuse of Children
June 10, 2015: the Vatican announced that Roman Catholic bishops accused of covering up or failing to prevent the sexual abuse of children by priests would be subject to judgment and discipline by a new Vatican tribunal..
The decision was a measure that abuse victims had urged for years. The church had judicial procedures for judging priests accused of abuse, but until this announcment bishops accused of negligence or cover-ups were almost never held accountable by the church itself.
The tribunal would also deal with the backlog of cases involving sexual abuse, “which are still very numerous,” a Vatican official said. The issue of accountability has been under discussion for some time, said the Vatican’s chief spokesman, the Rev. Federico Lombardi. “As you see, it didn’t remain on paper,” he said. (see June 15)
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