June 30 Peace Love Activism

June 30 Peace Love Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Dred Scott
June 30, 1847: in a trial before the St. Louis Circuit Court Scott lost because of a technicality—he was suing Irene Emerson for his freedom but he had no witness who could prove she now owned him. (BH, see July 26; Dred Scott, see March 17, 1848)
Dyer Anti-Lynching bill
June 30, 1922: the Senate Judiciary Committee, to the surprise of the Senate, voted 8 to 6 to favorably report the Dyer Anti-Lynching bill, which would permit the Federal Government to assume prosecution of lynchings when States fall or neglect to prosecute. It was fully understood that the Senate would allow this bill to die because it stirred up so much feeling during its progress in the House. (see Aug 14)
NAACP v. Alabama
June 30, 1958, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled the NAACP was not required to release membership lists to continue operating in the state. For the NAACP, the ruling was a great victory, enabling them to continue operating in Alabama. (see Jan 6)
Alberta Williams King

June 30 Peace Love Activism

June 30, 1974: six years after the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr., his mother, Alberta Williams King, was shot to death as she played "The Lord's Prayer" on the organ at Ebenezer Baptist Church. Her killer, a 43-year-old black man named Marcus Wayne Chenault, told a judge he acted out of his hatred for Christians. (see July 25)
Miller v. Johnson
June 30, 1995: the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that gerrymandering based on race was unconstitutional. (BH, see Oct 12; Voting, see July 12, 2012)
Rainey Pool murder
June 30, 1999: a Humphreys County jury found Dennis Newton not guilty of murdering Rainey Pool (see April 12, 1970).  (see August 2)
137 SHOTS
June 30, 2015: Cuyahoga County prosecutor Tim McGinty announced that the misdemeanor trial for five white Cleveland police supervisors accused of failing to control a high-speed car chase that led to two unarmed black people being killed in a 137-shot barrage of police gunfire would be held in a predominantly black suburb, not in county court.

McGinty said officials in East Cleveland, where the November 2012 car chase ended and the shooting occurred, contacted his office about trying the case in that suburban city after a judge acquitted a white Cleveland patrolman last month on felony manslaughter charges for his role in the shooting deaths of driver Timothy Russell and passenger Malissa Williams.

McGinty said the same misdemeanor charges against the supervisors will be filed in East Cleveland and county prosecutors will help try the case, which had been set for trial in county court on July 27. (see July 1)
Church Burning
June 30, 2015: a fire broke out at Mount Zion African Methodist Episcopal Church in Greeleyville, a town located about 65 miles north of Charleston, South Carolina. The church had previously been burned down by arsonists with ties to the KKK 20 years ago. (BH, see July 5; CB, see July 15)
Technological Milestone
June 30, 1948: Bell Laboratories demonstrated a prototype transistor radio. (see March 31, 1949)

June 30 Music et al

Frankie Lymon & The Teenagers
June 30, 1956:  a concert by Frankie Lymon & The Teenagers at the Asbury Park, NJ Convention Hall ended prematurely when a fistfight in the audience erupted into a full scale riot. Three people were stabbed and Mayor Roland J. Hines threatened a city-wide ban on rock and roll performances. The ban never came to pass. (see July 9)
The Beatles
June 30, 1966, The Beatles’ perform at Budokoan, Japan.
 
  • Rock & Roll Music
  • She’s A Woman
  • If I Needed Someone
  • Day Tripper
  • Baby’s In Black
  • I Feel Fine
  • I Feel Fine
  • Yesterday
  • I Wanna Be Your Man
  • Nowhere Man
  • Paperback Writer
  • I’m Down

INDEPENDENCE DAY

June 30 Peace Love Activism

June 30, 1960:  Democratic Republic of Congo independent from Belgium. (see July 1)

Fair Housing

June 30, 1961: Title V of the Housing Act was amended to make nonfarm rural residents eligible for direct housing loans from the Farmers Home Administration. These changes extended the housing program to towns with a population of up to 2,500. (see November 20, 1962)

Vietnam

Rt 13
June 30, 1966: on Route 13, which links Vietnam to the Cambodian border, American forces are brutally assaulted by the Vietcong. Only American air and artillery support prevented a complete disaster. (see July 1)
Troop strength
June 30, 1967: 448,400 US troops in Vietnam. (see July 29)
Cambodian Invasion
June 30, 1970: President Nixon announced the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Cambodia but warns that if necessary he will continue to bomb Vietnamese troops and supply lines there. He expresses hope that Hanoi will now agree to serious negotiations. (see Aug 24)
Pentagon Papers
June 30, 1971: in New York Times Co. v. United States, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Pentagon Papers may be published, rejecting government injunctions as unconstitutional prior restraint. (DE/PP, see July; Vietnam, see July 5)

Feminism

National Organization for Women

June 30 Peace Love Activism

June 30, 1966: Betty Friedan and a small group of her friends attending a women’s conference in Washington, D.C. became so disgusted at the lack of action on women’s rights that they decided to form a national advocacy organization for women. Thus was born NOW, the National Organization for Women. It was formally chartered on October 29
Equal Rights Amendment
June 30, 1982: the deadline for ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment passed with only thirty-five of the needed thirty-eight states approving the amendment. Opposition to the amendment is strongest in the South and Southwest. (see Feb 7, 1983)
MADSEN et al. v. WOMEN’S HEALTH CENTER, INC., et al
June 30, 1994: the Supreme Court ruled that judges can bar even peaceful demonstrators from getting too close to abortion clinics. (see July 29)
June 30 Peace Love Activism

Native Americans

United States v. Sioux Nation of Indians
June 30, 1980: the US Supreme Court upheld an award of $15.5 million for the market value of the land guaranteed to the Sioux by the Treaty of Fort Laramie., along with 103 years worth of interest at 5 percent, for an additional $105 million. The Lakota Sioux, however, refused to accept payment and instead demanded the return of their territory from the United States.
Indian Mineral Development Act of 1982
 In 1982 The Act  provided Indian tribes with flexibility in the development and sale of mineral resources.  Foremost among the beneficial effects of IMDA was the opportunity for Indian tribes to enter into joint venture agreements with mineral developers. The contractual relationships permitted by IMDA were designed to meet two objectives: First, to further the policy of self-determination and second, to maximize the financial return tribes can expect for their valuable mineral resources.
American Indian Movement
In 1985, AIM  established a security camp  on Navajo land near Big Mountain, Arizona, to support the traditional Dine elders in their resistance to forced relocation. (see Native Americans, Dec 14)

AIDS

Ryan White
June 30, 1985:  though Ryan White felt strong enough to return to school, Superintendent James O. Smith denied White admittance for "everyone else's own protection." White's parents challenge decision. (see Aug 26)

LGBTQ

Bowers v. Hardwick
June 30, 1986: the U.S. Supreme Court ruled 5-4  that homosexual activity between consenting adults in the privacy of the home was not protected by the Constitution. (LGBTQ, see Oct 1; LGBTQ Supreme Court, see June 26, 2003)
“No Gays Allowed”

June 30 Peace Love Activism

June 30, 2015: Jeff Amyx removed the "No Gays allowed" sign and replaced it with a sign that says: "We reserve the right to refuse service to anyone who would violate our rights of freedom of speech & freedom of religion." (see July 1)

Judicial Milestone

Affordable Care Act

June 30 Peace Love Activism

June 30, 2014: The Supreme Court issued its opinion, Burwell v. Hobby Lobby, which declared one section of the Affordable Care Act (“Obamacare”) in violation of the religious liberty of privately held corporations, and created a potentially serious civil liberties problem with respect to the free exercise of religion. The Court ruled that Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc., was exempt from the ACA because its owner objected on religious grounds to the law’s requirements regarding some Women’s Health devices.

The decision marked the first time that the Court had ruled that private corporations had religious rights. The ruling was limited to “privately held” corporations, excluding publicly held ones that are owned by stockholders. Hobby Lobby is owned entirely by the founder and his family. The Court did not base its ruling on the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment, but rather on the Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA). (JM, see June 18, 2015; ACA, see March 9, 2015)

 

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June 29 Peace Love Activism

June 29 Peace Love Activism

The Red Scare and the Cold War

FREE SPEECH
June 29, 1940: President Roosevelt signed the Alien Registration Act of 1940, usually called the Smith Act, which made it illegal to assist any groups "who teach, advocate, or encourage the overthrow or destruction of the government of the United States by force or violence." Hundreds of American Communists would later be charged for violations of the Smith Act. (Free Speech, see late November, 1941; Red Scare, see Feb 10, 1944; arrests, see July 20, 1948)
Hollywood Ten
June 29, 1950: the remaining eight men of the Hollywood Ten were convicted of contempt of Congress and six were immediately taken to jail. Maltz, Cole, Lardner, and Bessie were sentenced to serve one year and pay $1,000 fines. Dmytryk and Biberman were sentenced to six-month terms and pay $1.000 fines. Adrian Scott was ill and his sentencing postponed. Samual Ornitz’s term was also postponed for health reasons. (see July 29)

BLACK HISTORY

June 29, 1947: President Harry Truman was the first president to address the NAACP, the nation’s leading civil rights organization. Delivered at the Lincoln Memorial, his speech on this day was broadcast to a national radio audience. Eleanor Roosevelt, Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black, and Chief Justice Fred M. Vinson sat with the president on the dais, and their presence undoubtedly added to the political and legal significance of the president’s remarks. (Oct 23)
Autherine Lucy and Pollie Ann Meyers
June 29, 1955: the NAACP secured a court order preventing the University of Alabama from rejecting the admission applications of Autherine Lucy and Pollie Ann Meyers  based upon their race. Days later, the court amended the order to apply to all other African-American students seeking admission. (Black History, see July; U of A, see Oct 10)
Bethel Street Baptist Church
June 29, 1958: early in the morning a bomb exploded outside Bethel Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, located on the north side of town in one of the segregated city's African American neighborhoods. The church's pastor, Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth, was a civil rights activist working to eliminate segregation in Birmingham.

The church had been bombed before, on December 25, 1956, and since that date several volunteers had kept watch over the neighborhood every night. Around 1:30 a.m., Will Hall, who was on watch that night, was alerted to smoke coming from the church. He discovered a paint can containing dynamite near the church wall and carried it into the street before taking cover as it exploded.

The can contained between fifteen and twenty sticks of dynamite. The blast blew a two-foot hole in the street and broke the windows of houses in the vicinity as well as the stained glass windows of the church, which were still being repaired from the previous bombing. Police said there were few clues as to the culprit's identity, but a passerby reported seeing a car full of white men pass by shortly before the bomb was discovered. Rev. Shuttlesworth praised Mr. Hall for his brave actions, saying that if he had not moved the dynamite, it probably would have destroyed the entire church. "This shows that America has a long way to go before it can try be called democratic," he said. (BH, see June 30; Bethel, see December 13, 1962; CB, see September 9, 1962)
Murders of Civil Rights Workers Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner
June 29, 1964: the FBI issued poster of missing workers. (BH, see July 9; Workers, see July 2)
University of Texas at Austin
June 29, 2013: (from the NYT) The Supreme Court agreed to take a second look at a challenge to the use of race in admissions decisions by the University of Texas at Austin, reviving a potent challenge to affirmative action in higher education. When the court last considered the case in 2013, supporters of affirmative action were nervous. But the court kicked the can down the road in what appeared to be a compromise decision. In returning to the case, the court signaled that it might be prepared to issue a major decision on the role race may play in government decision making.

In 2013, Justice Anthony M. Kennedy, writing for the majority, said the appeals court had been insufficiently skeptical of the program, which has unusual features. The appeals court then endorsed the program for a second time. (BH, see June 30; Affirmative Action, see June 23, 2016)

June 29 Music et al

Jimi Hendrix

June 29, 1962: received an honorable discharge on the basis of "unsuitability" (see February 1964)
Bookends  again
June 29 – July 26, 1968: Simon and Garfunkel’s Bookends  again the Billboard #1 album.
The [bumpy] Road to Bethel
June 29, 1969: Wes Pomeroy met with the Tri-County Citizen Band Radio Club and they agreed to assist with the Festival. (see last week of June)

last week of June: John Fabri spoke with NYC Chief Inspector George P McManus and McManus promised cooperation with getting NYC police officers to work at the festival. (see June 26)
June 29 Peace Love Activism

Vietnam

Bombing Hanoi

June 29, 1966: U.S. planes begin bombing Hanoi and Haiphong. (see June 30)
Daniel Ellsberg/Pentagon Papers
June 29, 1971: Alaska Senator Mike Gravel convened a hearing of the Subcommittee on Public Buildings and Grounds in the middle of the night (and only he attends). He reads the Pentagon Papers aloud for three hours, officially entering them into the Senate record. (DE/PP, see June 30)

DEATH PENALTY

Furman v. Georgia
June 29, 1972: the U.S. Supreme Court ruled by a vote of 5-4 that capital punishment, as it was currently employed on the state and federal level, is unconstitutional. The majority held that, in violation of the Eighth Amendment to the Constitution, the death penalty qualified as "cruel and unusual punishment," primarily because states employed execution in "arbitrary and capricious ways," especially in regard to race. It was the first time that the nation's highest court had ruled against capital punishment. However, because the Supreme Court suggested new legislation that could make death sentences constitutional again, such as the development of standardized guidelines for juries that decide sentences, it was not an outright victory for opponents of the death penalty. (see November 21, 1974)
Coker v. Georgia
June 29, 1977: shortly after it revived state death penalty schemes in Gregg v. Georgia (1976), the U.S. Supreme Court was asked [in Coker v. Georgia] to determine whether the Eighth Amendment's ban on cruel and unusual punishments prohibited the death penalty for rape. Justice Bryon White's plurality opinion for the Supreme Court [in a 7-2 vote] reversed the sentence, finding the death penalty disproportionate to the crime of raping an adult woman. (see July 2, 1982)
Thompson v. Oklahoma
June 29, 1988: the main issue the Supreme Court considered in Thompson v. Oklahoma was whether it was constitutional to execute a person who was a 'child' at the time they committed the offense. Thompson's attorneys argued that he should not be executed because this would violate Thompson's rights, as a 'child,' under the Eighth Amendment, which forbids 'cruel and unusual punishment. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled, in a 5-3 majority decision, to vacate the order to excute Thompson. The majority opinion by Justice John Paul Stevens noted that “evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society' compelled the conclusion that it would be unconstitutional under the Eighth Amendment of the Constitution to execute a person for a crime committed as a fifteen-year-old." (see June 26, 1989)
Glossip v Gross
June 29, 2015: (from the NYT) in Glossip v Gross, the US Supreme Court ruled 5 – 4 against three death row inmates who had sought to bar the use of an execution drug they said risked causing excruciating pain. In the process, two dissenting members of the court — Justices Stephen G. Breyer and Ruth Bader Ginsburg — came very close to announcing that they were ready to rule the death penalty unconstitutional. This gave rise to slashing debate with Justices Antonin Scalia and Clarence Thomas about the reliability and effectiveness of the punishment, a dispute that overshadowed the core issue in the case. (see July 15)

INDEPENDENCE DAY

June 29, 1976: Seychelles independent of United Kingdom. (see June 27, 1977)

Religion and Public Education

June 29, 1983: in Mueller v. Allen, the US Supreme Court decided that a Minnesota tax deduction for school tuition, transportation, books, and supplies is allowable because both public and private school parents can benefit. The Court acknowledged that tuition-paying parents of religious school children reap the largest benefits, but the Court held that "whatever unequal effect may be attributed to the statutory classification can fairly be regarded as a rough return for the benefits . . . provided to the State and all taxpayers by parents sending their children to parochial schools." (see August 11, 1984)

US Labor History

June 29, 1988: the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in CWA v. Beck that, in a union security agreement, a union can collect as dues from non-members only that money necessary to perform its duties as a collective bargaining representative. (see March 22, 1990)

Feminism

Women’s Health
June 29, 1992: in Planned Parenthood v. Casey, the Court upheld four restrictions on abortion in a Pennsylvania law, invalidated one, but preserved the basic right to an abortion. The decision surprised many observers, who thought the Court would very likely use the case as an opportunity to overturn Roe v. Wade (January 22, 1973). The coalition of Justices Sandra Day O’Connor, David Souter and Anthony Kennedy established a new standard for evaluating abortion restrictions, holding that they could not place an “undue burden” on access to abortions. (F, see Nov 3; BC, see March 10, 1993)
Texas abortion law
June 29, 2013: the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to temporarily block parts of a strict new Texas abortion law. The court granted a request by women's health providers, which had asked the court to temporarily put on hold a 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruling from June 9. The groups asked the high court to put the provisions on hold until they can file a formal petition asking the justices to take the case. (BC, see July 14; Texas, see June 27, 2016)
Malala Yousafzai
June 29, 2014: Malala Yousufzai, shot and severely wounded  by the Taliban because she advocated education for girls, won the Liberty Medal from the National Constitution Center in Philadelphia. "It's an honour to be awarded the Liberty Medal," Yousufzai, 17 said. "I accept this award on behalf of all the children around the world who are struggling to get education." The medal has been awarded annually since 1989. (see Sept 12)

Crime and Punishment

June 29, 2006: the Supreme Court ruled 5-3 that President George W. Bush's plan to try Guantanamo Bay detainees in military tribunals violated U.S. and international law. (T, see April 11, 2007; C&P, see May 17, 2010)

Technological Milestone

June 29, 2007: the first-generation Apple iPhone went on sale in the US. Masses of consumers lined up in advance of the phone’s release, camping out on city streets outside Apple stores and retailers. Seventy four days after its market release, Apple recorded one million iPhones sold. (see Nov 19)

Environmental Issues

June 29, 2013: (from the NYT) The Supreme Court blocked one of the Obama administration’s most ambitious environmental initiatives, an Environmental Protection Agency regulation meant to limit emissions of mercury and other toxic pollutants from coal-fired power plants.

Industry groups and some 20 states had challenged the E.P.A.’s decision to regulate the emissions, saying the agency had failed to take into account the punishing costs its rule would impose.

The Clean Air Act required the regulation to be “appropriate and necessary.” The challengers said the agency had run afoul of that law by  deciding to regulate the emissions without first undertaking a cost-benefit analysis.

Writing for the majority, Justice Antonin Scalia wrote: “It is not rational, never mind ‘appropriate,’ to impose billions of dollars in economic costs in return for a few dollars in health or environmental benefits. Statutory context supports this reading.” (see July 2)

Voting Rights

June 29, 2013: in Arizona State Legislature v. Arizona Independent Redistricting Commission, the Supreme Court ruled 5-4  that a voter-approved independent redistricting commission in Arizona was constitutional. The conservative wing of the court was in the minority.

In response to complaints that the state legislature was engaging in partisan gerrymandering of congressional districts, Arizona voters approved an independent commission to draw district lines in a 2000 ballot initiative. The commission has two Republicans and two Democrats, who  legislative leaders choose from a list composed by the state's Commission on Appellate Court Appointments, in addition to a chairman who may not  be a member of either party. Republican legislators sued after the 2012 election, arguing that they shouldn't be completely cut out of the district-drawing process. The case hinged on one word: "legislature." It arose out of a debate over the Constitution's elections clause, which dictates that the  "times, places, and manner" of federal elections "shall be prescribed in each state by the legislature thereof." (see Aug 5)

LGBTQ

June 29, 2015: Jeff Amyx, who owned Amyx Hardware & Roofing Supplies in Grainger County, Tennessee decided to express his beliefs following the Supreme Court's ruling allowing same-sex marriage by putting up a sign that reads, "No Gays Allowed." Amyx added the sign because gay and lesbian couples were against his religion.

Amyx, who is also a baptist minister, said he realized that LGBTQ people are not afraid to stand for what they believe in. He said it showed him that Christian people should be brave enough to stand for what they believe in.

"They gladly stand for what they believe in, why can't I? They believe their way is right, I believe it's wrong. But yet I'm going to take more persecution than them because I'm standing for what I believe in," Amyx said. (see June 30)

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June 28 Peace Love Activism

June 28 Peace Love Activism

US Labor History

June 28, 1894: President Grover Cleveland signed legislation declaring Labor Day an official U.S. holiday for federal employees. (see Sept 1)

Anarchism

June 28 Peace Love Activism

 

June 28, 1914: Archduke Ferdinand, the heir to the Austrian throne, assassinated by a Bosnian Serb anarchist. (see Aug 4, 1914)

Feminism

Voting Rights
June 28, 1920:  Democratic National Convention opened in San Francisco. Abby Scott Baker and other NWP members, notably Betty Gram, Elizabeth Kent, Izetta Jewel Brown, and Sara Bard Field, attend convention and obtain Democratic Party’s support for ratification and suffrage plank on platform. (Feminism, see July 28; VR, see Aug 20)
U.S. Air Force
June 28, 1976: the first women entered the U.S. Air Force Academy. (see Feminism, July 6)
Women’s Health
June 28, 2016: the Supreme Court allowed Washington state to require pharmacies to dispense Plan B or other emergency contraceptives, rejecting an appeal from pharmacists who said they had religious objections to providing the drugs.

The justices' order left  in place rules first adopted in 2007 following reports that some women had been denied access to emergency contraceptives that are effective when taken within a few days of unprotected sex. Pharmacies must fill lawful prescriptions, but individual pharmacists with moral objections can refer patients to another pharmacist at the same store. (see Aug 18)

Black History

see Scottsboro Travesty for more
June 28, 1934: Samuel Leibowitz filed for new trials. Ruling unanimously, the Alabama Supreme Court denied his request. (SB, see January 1935)
Malcolm X

June 28 Peace Love Activism

June 28, 1964: X founded the Organization of Afro-American Unity. The group lasted until his death. (BH, see June 29; X, see February 4, 1965)
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
June 28, 1978: the  US Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional the admission process of the Medical School at the University of California at Davis, which set aside 16 of the 100 seats for African American students. The Court held that while affirmative action systems are constitutional, a quota system based on race is unconstitutional. (Black History, see Sept 15; Affirmative Action, see June 23, 2003)
Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1
June 28, 2007: the US Supreme Court held that the student assignment plan of Seattle Public Schools and Jefferson County Public Schools did not meet the narrowly tailored and compelling interest requirements for a race-based assignment plan because it was used only to achieve "racial balance." Public schools may not use race as the sole determining factor for assigning students to schools. Race-conscious objectives to achieve diverse school environment may be acceptable. (Black History, see Aug 10; SD, see April 18, 2013)

FREE SPEECH

June 28, 1940: Congress passed the Smith Act, officially the Alien Registration Act of 1940, making it a crime to advocate the overthrow of the government. The law, significantly, criminalized advocacy and not specific actions related to the violence overthrow of the government. (FS, see late November 1941; Smith Act, see June 4, 1951)   

SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE

June 28, 1957: President Dwight D. Eisenhower spoke at the opening of an Islamic Center in Washington, D.C. He stated: ““…. And I should like to assure you, my Islamic friends, that under the American Constitution, under American tradition, and in American hearts, this Center, this place of worship, is just as welcome as could be a similar edifice of any other religion. Indeed, America would fight with her whole strength for your right to have here your own church and worship according to your own conscience.” (see December 7, 1960)
Lemon v. Kurtzman
June 28, 1971: the US Supreme Court clarified the standard for determining whether a form of public aid to religious schools violated the establishment clause of the First Amendment. Writing for the majority, Chief Justice Burger articulated a three-part test for laws dealing with religious establishment. To be constitutional, a statute must have "a secular legislative purpose," it must have principal effects which neither advance nor inhibit religion, and it must not foster "an excessive government entanglement with religion." The Court found that the subsidization of parochial schools furthered a process of religious inculcation, and that the "continuing state surveillance" necessary to enforce the specific provisions of the laws would inevitably entangle the state in religious affairs. The Court also noted the presence of an unhealthy "divisive political potential" concerning legislation which appropriates support to religious schools. (see May 15, 1972)
Mitchell v. Helms
June 28, 2000: the US Supreme Court affirmed the constitutionality of a Louisiana state program that provided books, computers, lab equipment, televisions, and video tape recorders to religious schools, thus broadening the range of permissible state assistance to religious schools.

In a 6-3 plurality decision delivered by Justice Clarence Thomas, the Court held that that Chapter 2, as applied in Jefferson Parish, is not a law respecting an establishment of religion simply because many of the private schools receiving Chapter 2 aid in the parish are religiously affiliated. Turning to neutrality to distinguish between indoctrination attributable to the State and that which is not, Justice Thomas wrote for the Court, "[i]f the religious, irreligious, and areligious are all alike eligible for governmental aid, no one would conclude that any indoctrination that any particular recipient conducts has been done at the behest of the government." (see June 27, 2002)

Cold War

June 28 Peace Love Activism

June 28, 1962: John Henry Faulk had been a popular CBS radio talk show host for six years in the 1950s. He lost his job in 1957 and was blacklisted after he was accused of being a Communist in the notorious anti-Communist report, Red Channels [see June 22, 1950]. Faulk sued and was awarded $3.5 million in damages. The award was later reduced to $500,000, but the case effectively ended the practice of blacklisting in the radio and television industry. (see Aug 5)
 
Dissolution of Yugoslavia

June 28 Peace Love Activism

June 28, 2001: former Yugoslav leader Slobodan Milosevic was handed over by Serbia to the U.N. war crimes tribunal. (see May 20, 2006)

Vietnam

June 28, 1965: the first major offensive by U.S. forces under the June 26 directive was launched by 3,000 troops of the 173rd Airborne Brigade, in conjunction with 800 Australian soldiers and a Vietnamese airborne unit. These forces assaulted a jungle area known as Viet Cong (aka, National Liberation Front) Zone D, 20 miles northeast of Saigon. The operation was called off after three days when it failed to make any major contact with the enemy. One American was killed, and nine Americans and four Australians were wounded. (see July 28)
Muhammad Ali decision

June 28 Peace Love Activism

June 28, 1971: the Supreme Court reversed Muhammad Ali’s conviction for refusing induction by unanimous decision in Clay v. United States. The decision was not based on, nor did it address, the merits of Clay's/Ali's claims per se, rather, the Government prosecution’s procedural failure to specify which claims were rejected and which were sustained, constituted the grounds upon which the Court reversed the conviction. (Ali, see Oct 30, 1974; Vietnam, see June 30)
see Daniel Ellsberg for more
June 28, 1971: Ellsberg surrendered to face criminal charges under the Espionage Act. (DE/PP, see June 29)
Troops
June 28, 1972: Nixon announced that no new draftees would be sent to Vietnam. (see July 10 > 14)

 

Space Race

June 28, 1965: the first commercial telephone conversation over a satellite took place over Early Bird I between America and Europe. It had capacity for 240 voice circuits or one black and white TV channel. Positioned to serve the Atlantic Ocean region, Early Bird provided commercial communications service between North America and Western Europe. It exceeded its 18 months designed in-orbit life by 2 additional years. (see July 14)

June 28 Music et al

Big Sur Folk Festival
June 28 – 29, 1967, The Fourth Big Sur Folk Festival. (Big Sur, see Oct 3, 1968; festivals, see October 15)
  • Joan Baez
  • Judy Collins
  • Mark Spoelstra
  • Jade the Mad Muse (?)
  • Chambers Brothers
  • Mimi Fariña
  • Al Kooper
see Bath Festival of Blues for more

June 28 Peace Love Activism

June 28, 1969: held at the Bath Pavilion Recreational Ground in Bath, Somerset, England with DJ John Peel. Tickets cost 18/6. The festival proved very popular, selling out all 30,000 tickets in the first week, surprising both the townsfolk and the promoters. The only major problem occurred when the Nice's use of bagpipers caused the stage to collapse. This is often considered the first modern 'rock' festival in Britain
Love Theme from Romeo & Juliet
June 28 – July 11, 1969: “Love Theme from Romeo & Juliet” by Henry Mancini #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.
 
June 28 Peace Love Activism

LGBTQ

Christopher St. Liberation Day

June 28 Peace Love Activism

June 28, 1970: Christopher St. Liberation Day commemorated the one-year anniversary of the Stonewall riots. Following the event, thousands of members of the LGBTQ community march through New York into Central Park. In the coming decades, the annual gay pride parade spread to dozens of countries around the world. (see October 10, 1972)
Texas turns away couples
June 28, 2015: Texas state's attorney general Ken Paxton (R) announced that county clerks would be able to turn away gay couples seeking marriage licenses based on religious objections. Paxton said that "numerous lawyers stand ready to assist clerks defending their religious beliefs.”

Lawmakers in Louisiana and Mississippi, which also previously had bans on gay marriage, were actively resisting the ruling by delaying its implementation. Louisiana Attorney General Buddy Caldwell (R) claimed that because the Supreme Court's ruling did not include an official order for states to begin issuing marriage licenses to gay couples, "there is not yet a legal requirement for officials to issue marriage licenses or perform marriages for same-sex couples in Louisiana." County clerks were instructed to hold off on issuing licenses for 25 days, the amount of time states are allowed to appeal the Court's ruling.

Mississippi Gov. Phil Bryant (R) said the Supreme Court had "usurped" each state's "authority to regulate marriage within their borders." He and other state leaders were considering various legal options, including halting all marriage licenses. (see June 29)
Boy Scouts of America et al. v. Dale
June 28, 2000: the US Supreme Court decided that held that the constitutional right to freedom of association allows a private organization like the Boy Scouts of America (BSA) to exclude a person from membership when "the presence of that person affects in a significant way the group's ability to advocate public or private viewpoints." The Supreme Court ruled that opposition to homosexuality is part of BSA's "expressive message" and that allowing homosexuals as adult leaders would interfere with that message. (LGBTQ, see Nov 7; BSA, see August 14, 2003)

IRAQ

Chemical weapons

June 28 Peace Love Activism

June 28, 1987: Iraqi warplanes dropped mustard gas bombs on the Iranian town of Sardasht in two separate bombing rounds, on four residential areas. This was the first time a civilian town was targeted by chemical weapons. (see March 16, 1988)
Iraq War II
June 28, 2004: the U.S.-led coalition transferred sovereignty to the interim Iraqi government two days ahead of schedule. (see Aug 27)

DEATH PENALTY

June 28, 1993: Kirk Bloodsworth was released from prison after a DNA test showed that a semen stain on the underwear of the 9-year-old girl he was twice convicted of raping and killing was not his. Bloodsworth spent one year awaiting trial, two years on death row, and then six years in prison after his death sentence was commuted to a life sentence before being exonerated. Bloodsworth was the first prisoner to have served time on death row to be exonerated with DNA testing. He received $300,000 in compensation for wrongful imprisonment and was granted a full pardon in December 1994 by Maryland Governor William Donald Schaefer. (see January 12, 1996)

 

Crime and Punishment

Enemy combatants
June 28, 2004: the Supreme Court ruled that enemy combatants can challenge their detention in U.S. courts. (see June 28, 2010)
Gun ownership
June 28, 2010: the Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that Americans have the right to own a gun for self-defense anywhere they live. (see June 26, 2015)

Affordable Care Act

June 28, 2012: the Supreme Court ruled that the individual health insurance mandate was constitutional, upholding the central provision of President Obama's signature Affordable Care Act. (see December 31, 2013)

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