March 30 Peace Love Activism

March 30 Peace Love Activism

Technological & Cultural Milestones
Ether

March 30 Peace Love Activism,

March 30, 1842: physician Dr. Crawford W. Long of Jefferson, Georgia, first used ether as an anesthetic during a minor operation. He placed an ether-soaked towel over the face of James Venable and removed a tumor from his neck. This event predated Morton's public demonstration of ether by four years, but was not disclosed until 1849 in the Southern Medical Journal, which was after Morton's widely publicized feat. However, Dr. Long's accomplishment in 1842 is now widely considered to represent the discovery of surgical anesthesia. He was the subject on a U.S. stamp issued 8 Apr 1940. This is Doctor's Day in his honor. (see May 24, 1844)
Lead pencil and eraser

March 30 Peace Love Activism,

March 30, 1858: the first U.S. patent for a combination lead pencil and eraser was issued to Hyman L. Lipman, of Philadelphia, Pa. (No. 19,783). The pencil was made in the usual manner, with one-fourth of its length reserved inside one end to carry a piece of prepared india-rubber, glued in at one edge. Thus cutting one end prepared the lead for writing, while cutting the other end would expose a small piece of india rubber. This eraser was then conveniently available whenever needed, and not subject to being mislaid. Further, the eraser could be sharpened to a finer point to make a more precise erasure of fine lines in a drawing, or cut further down if the end became soiled. (see October 24, 1861)
“Jeopardy!”

March 30 Peace Love Activism,

March 30, 1964: premiering in a daytime slot on NBC, "Jeopardy!" was one of the first quiz shows to reintroduce factual knowledge, including knowledge of sports and entertainment trivia as well as the arts, literature, and science, as the main source of questions. Seemingly reversing the logic of the big money quiz shows of the 1950s (e.g., "The 64,000 Question," "Twenty-One"), producer Merv Griffin introduced a format in which the answers for questions are revealed and the contestants must phrase their response in the form of a question. (see “in July”)

BLACK HISTORY

Green Cottenham

March 30 Peace Love Activism,

 

March 30, 1908, : Green Cottenham, a black man, was arrested and charged with “vagrancy” in Shelby County, Alabama. An offense created at the end of the Reconstruction Period and disproportionately enforced against black citizens, vagrancy was defined as an inability to prove employment when demanded by a white person.

Twenty-two-year-old Cottenham was quickly found guilty in a brief appearance before the county judge without a lawyer, and received a sentence of thirty days of hard labor. He was also assessed a variety of fees payable to nearly everyone involved in the process, from the sheriff to the deputy to the court clerk to the witnesses. Due to his inability to pay these fees, Cottenham’s sentence would actually last nearly a year.

The day after his court appearance, Cottenham was turned over to the Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad Company. The company leased him from Shelby County for $12 per month, which was to go toward paying off the owed fees and fines. Cottenham was sent to work in the Pratt Mines outside Birmingham, in Slope No. 12 mine where conditions were brutal. By the time Cottenham was released nearly a year later, more than sixty of his fellow prisoners had died of disease, accidents, or homicide. Most of their corpses were burned in the mine’s incinerators or buried in shallow graves surrounding the mine. (see Aug 14)
”SCOTTSBORO BOYS”
March 30, 1931: a grand jury indicted the nine youths for rape. Although rape was potentially a capital offense, the defendants were not allowed to consult an attorney because they were being kept  “for their safety” in death row cells and that area of the prison did not permit lawyers to speak unattended. (see Scottsboro Boys Travesty for full story) (SB, see  Apr 6 – 7)
FREE SPEECH
March 30, 1964: Hamilton v. Alabama. In a 6–3 per curiam opinion, the Supreme Court granted certiorari (agreed to consider the case) and, without hearing any oral arguments, found in Hamilton's favor, reversing the judgment of the Alabama Supreme Court. In support of its summary decision, the Court cited its 1963 ruling in Johnson v. Virginia, in which it had unanimously held that "a State may not require racial segregation in a courtroom" (BH, see Mar 30; FS, see Apr 6)
Voting Rights
March 30, 1964: what is arguably the most famous filibuster in the history of the U.S. Senate began on this day as southern segregationists attempted to block the civil rights bill pending in the Senate. Nineteen Senators (18 Southern Democrats and one Republican), led by Sen. Strom Thurmond of South Carolina, conducted the filibuster, which lasted for 57 working days. Senator Richard Russell, Jr, of Georgia vowed, “We will resist to the bitter end any measure or any movement which would have a tendency to bring about social equality and intermingling and amalgamation of the races in our (Southern) states.” [Historical note: unlike current times, in those days senators had to actually speak continuously in order to maintain a filibuster.] (BH, see Apr 1; VR, see June 10)
Viola Liuzzo
March 30, 1965: funeral services were held for Viola Liuzzo. Her funeral was held at Immaculate Heart of Mary Catholic church in Detroit, with many prominent members of both the civil rights movement and government there to pay their respects. Included in this group were Martin Luther King, Jr.; NAACP executive director Roy Wilkins; Congress on Racial Equality national leader James Farmer; Michigan lieutenant governor William G. Milliken; Teamsters president Jimmy Hoffa; and United Auto Workers president Walter Reuther. At San Francisco's Grace Episcopal Cathedral, Martin Luther King said of Liuzzo, "If physical death is the price some must pay to save us and our white brothers from eternal death of the spirit, then no sacrifice could be more redemptive."

Less than two weeks after her death, a charred cross was found in front of four Detroit homes, including the Liuzzo residence. (BH, see April 2; Selma, see May 3; MLK, see Aug 12)
Congressional Black Caucus

March 30 Peace Love Activism,

March 30, 1971: founded by 13 members, the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC), representing African-American members of the House of Representatives, was organized on this day. It originated with the Democratic Select Committee in 1969, led by Rep. Charles C. Diggs (D–Michigan). By 2013, there were 43 members of the CBC. (see Apr 20)
Hate Crimes Prevention Act
March 30, 2007: The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act  reintroduced for the fourth time. The 2007 version of the bill added gender identity to the list of suspect classes for prosecution of hate crimes. The bill was again referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism and Homeland Security. (BH, see Apr 13; JB, LGBTQ, MSM, see May 3)

US Labor History

March 30 Peace Love Activism,

March 30, 1930: 35,000 unemployed march in New York’s Union Square. Police beat many demonstrators, injuring 100. (see Apr 13)

Marijuana

  The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961

March 30 Peace Love Activism,

March 30, 1961:  The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 signed. It is an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally narcotic) drugs and of drugs with similar effects except under licence for specific purposes, such as medical treatment and research. The document included updating the Paris Convention of 13 July 1931 to include the vast number of synthetic opioids invented in the intervening thirty years and a mechanism for more easily including new ones. Earlier treaties had only controlled opium, coca, and derivatives such as morphine, heroin and cocaine. The Single Convention consolidated those treaties and broadened their scope to include cannabis and drugs whose effects are similar to those of the drugs specified. (see April 8, 1968)

March 30 Music et al

He’s So Fine
March 30 – April 26, 1963: The Chiffons “He’s So Fine” #1 on the Billboard Hot 100.

LSD

March 30 Peace Love Activism,

March 30, 1965: Owsley Stanely first shipment of lysergic acid monohydrate, the basis for LSD, arrived through his Berkeley Lab in Los Angeles. He produced 300,000 capsules (270 micrograms each) of LSD by May 1965 and then returned to the Bay Area. (see April 2)
The Beatles

March 30 Peace Love Activism,

March 30, 1967: photographed with a combination of photographic collage and wax figures from Madame Tussaud's famous museum for the cover artwork of Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band album at Chelsea Manor Studios in London. There are 61 others surrounding the Beatles, among whom is German composer Karlheinz Stockhausen. (Stockhausen, see in 1955 – 56;  Beatles, see Apr 8)
The Road to Bethel
March 30, 1969: after the Saugerties refusal, Roberts and Rosenman speak to Howard Mills about a piece of land in Wallkill, NY that Mills was going to develop. Mills agreed to rent the site for the festival. (see April 1)

Vietnam

U.S. Embassy

March 30 Peace Love Activism,

March 30, 1965: a bomb exploded in a car parked in front of the U.S. Embassy in Saigon, virtually destroying the building and killing 19 Vietnamese, 2 Americans, and 1 Filipino; 183 others were injured. Congress quickly appropriated $1 million to reconstruct the embassy. Although some U.S. military leaders advocated special retaliatory raids on North Vietnam, President Lyndon B. Johnson refused. (see “in April”)
North Vietnamese offensive
March 30, 1972: a major coordinated communist offensive opened with the heaviest military action since the sieges of Allied bases at Con Thien and Khe Sanh in 1968. Committing almost their entire army to the offensive, the North Vietnamese launched a massive three-pronged attack into South Vietnam. Four North Vietnamese divisions attacked directly across the Demilitarized Zone in Quang Tri province. Thirty-five South Vietnamese soldiers died in the initial attack and hundreds of civilians and soldiers were wounded. (see Apr 10)

Ronald Reagan

March 30 Peace Love Activism

March 30, 1981, Ronald Reagan shot in the chest outside a Washington, D.C. hotel by John Hinckley, Jr. Two police officers and Press Secretary James Brady are also wounded.

Consumer Protection

March 30 Peace Love Activism

March 30, 1999: a jury in Portland, Ore., ordered Philip Morris to pay $81 million to the family of a man who died of lung cancer after smoking Marlboros for four decades. (see March 21,  2000)

Iraq War II

March 30, 2003:  US Secretary of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld: We know where [the weapons of mass destruction] are. They’re in the area around Tikrit and Baghdad and east, west, south and north somewhat. [ABC This Week, 3/30/03] (see April 3)

Sexual Abuse of Children

BSA
March 30, 2005: Douglas Sovereign Smith Jr., 61, the longtime program director of the Boy Scouts of America and chairman of its Youth Protection Task Force pleaded guilty in court to a charge of possession and distribution of child pornography. (Sexual abuse, see in June 2005; BSA, see June 17, 2012)
March 30 Peace Love Activism

Stop and Frisk Policy

March 30, 2012: Mayor Michael Bloomberg defended Stop-and-Frisk. He said the fact that NYPD officers were recovering fewer guns was an indication that the program was working. (see May 9)

Affordable Care Act

March 30, 2012: US Supreme Court Justices initial vote on health care law. Their final opinion would be released in June. In the weeks after this meeting, individual votes can change. Even who wins can change, as the justices read one another's draft opinions and dissents. (see June 28)

March 30, 2015: the Supreme Court declined to take up the latest lawsuit against Obamacare, this time a challenge to a board that critics label a “death panel.”

The case, Coons v. Lew, contested the constitutionality of the Independent Payment Advisory Board, among other complaints against Obamacare. The IPAB was designed to limit spending growth in Medicare, but the challengers say that it will result in limiting care for seniors. (see Apr 27)

FREE SPEECH

Student Rights
March 30, 2015:  the U.S. Supreme Court refused to take up a ruling that had found Live Oak High School had the legal right to order students wearing American flag-adorned shirts to turn them inside out during a 2010 Cinco de Mayo celebration.

In 2014, the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals had ruled in favor of Live Oak High School administrators, who argued that a history of problems on the Mexican holiday justified the decision to act against the American flag-wearing students. Officials ordered the students to either cover up the shirts or go home, citing past threats and campus strife between Latino and white students that raised fears of violence. (FS, see Mar 31; SR, see June 18)

Fourth Amendment

GPS ankle bracelets

March 30 Peace Love Activism

March 30, 2015: the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that North Carolina courts were wrong to decide that GPS ankle bracelets don't count as searches.

Torrey Dale Grady was a repeat sex offender, and North Carolina forced him to wear a GPS tracking device at all times. Grady argued that violated his Fourth Amendment right to be free from unreasonable searches. Several state courts, including the state Supreme Court, dismissed Grady's argument, saying the ankle monitor did not count as a search.

The U.S. Supreme court ruled it does. The justices said: "The state's program is plainly designed to obtain information. And since it does so by physically intruding on a subject's body, it effects a Fourth Amendment search."

The Supreme Court did not, however, decide whether the search was unreasonable. The justices sent the case back to state courts to rule on that question, and determine whether North Carolina's tracking program was constitutional. (see Mar 31)

Native Americans

March 30 Peace Love Activism

March 30, 2015: “Indian children, parents and tribes deserve better,” wrote Chief Judge Jeffrey Viken of the Federal Court for South Dakota in a 45-page decision. Viken ruled that the procedures used by the four state officials in removing Indian children from their homes violated the due process clause of the 14th Amendment of the Constitution as well as the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA), which establishes minimum federal standards for the removal of Indian children from their families. Congress passed the law in 1978 “to curb the alarmingly high rate of removal of Indian children from Indian parents.”

According to Viken, state officials violated the plaintiffs’ rights to basic judicial fairness during state child-custody hearings. Parents didn’t receive adequate notice of the allegations against them, nor was counsel appointed to represent them. They also were prohibited from cross-examining state workers who accused them of mistreating their children and from presenting evidence in their own defense. When their children were taken, the state court also failed to provide them with a written decision based on evidence presented during the hearing. (see Aug 30)

Women’s Health

March 30, 2016: the Food and Drug Administration relaxed the requirements for taking a medication that induces abortion, a move that was expected to expand access to the procedure.

The move was a victory for abortion rights advocates who had been fighting laws in states like Texas, North Dakota and Ohio that required providers to follow the requirements on the original F.D.A. labels for the drug when conducting abortions by medication. Many doctors said the original labels, based on clinical evidence from the 1990s, were outdated and that the state laws went against accepted medical practice and made it harder for women to get abortions. (see May 20)

March 30 Peace Love Activism, March 30 Peace Love Activism, March 30 Peace Love Activism, March 30 Peace Love Activism, March 30 Peace Love Activism, March 30 Peace Love Activism, March 30 Peace Love Activism, March 30 Peace Love Activism, March 30 Peace Love Activism, March 30 Peace Love Activism, March 30 Peace Love Activism, March 30 Peace Love Activism, 

 

 

March 29 Peace Love Activism

March 29 Peace Love Activism

Feminism

Voting Rights
March 29, 1874:  In Minor v. Happersett, Supreme Court ruled that the right to vote "was not necessarily one of the privileges or immunities of citizenship" and therefore "neither the Constitution nor the Fourteenth Amendment made all citizens voters." The decision ended feminists' attempts to secure voting rights under existing constitutional amendments. (see Feminism,  May 8; Voting Rights, see January 10, 1878)

Cultural Milestone

March 29 Peace Love Activism

March 29, 1886: Dr. John Pemberton  brewed the first batch of Coca Cola over a fire in a backyard in Atlanta, Georgia. Pemberton had created the concoction as a cure for "hangover," stomach ache and headache. He advertised it as a "brain tonic and intellectual beverage.” Coke contained cocaine as an ingredient until 1904, when the drug was banned by Congress. (see May 8)

US Labor History

West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish
March 29, 1937: the U.S. Supreme Court, in West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish, upheld the constitutionality of minimum wage legislation enacted by the State of Washington, overturning a decision in 1923 that held that federal minimum wage legislation for women was an unconstitutional infringement of liberty of contract. The case was brought by Elsie Parrish, a hotel housekeeper who lost her job and did not receive back wages in line with the state’s minimum wage for women law. (see May 26)
“Battle of Wall Street”

March 29 Peace Love Activism

March 29, 1948: “Battle of Wall Street,” policed charge members of the United Financial Employees’ Union, striking against the New York Stock Exchange and New York Curb Exchange (now known as the American Stock Exchange). Police arrest forty-three workers in what was to be the first and only strike in the history of either exchange. (see June 21)
Foxconn
March 29, 2012: responding to a critical report about its factories, Foxconn has pledged to sharply curtail the number of working hours in its Chinese factories and significantly increase wages, a move that could improve working conditions across China. (see Sept 24)
Right to Work
March 29, 2016: the Supreme Court handed organized labor a major victory, deadlocking 4 to 4 in a case that had threatened to cripple the ability of public-sector unions to collect fees from workers who chose not to join and did not want to pay for the unions’ collective bargaining activities.

                It was the starkest illustration yet of how the sudden death of Justice Antonin Scalia blocked the power of the court’s four remaining conservatives to move the law to the right. (see Aug 23)

Japanese Internment Camps

Voluntary evacuation
March 29, 1942:  ”Voluntary evacuation” of people of Japanese ancestry from Pacific Coast area ended. Before this date 10,231 moved out of restricted area on their own initiative after Army and newspapers requested this. (see Apr 13)

Cold War

Nuclear/Chemical News

March 29 Peace Love Activism

March 29, 1951:  Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were convicted of passing atomic secrets to the Soviet Union. (see April 5, 1951)

BLACK HISTORY

State Sovereignty Commission

March 29 Peace Love Activism

March 29, 1956: The Mississippi legislature established the State Sovereignty Commission as an official agency to fight the Civil Rights Movement — and the racial integration of public schools in particular. The Commission’s official purpose was to “do and perform any and all acts deemed necessary and proper to protect the sovereignty of the state of Mississippi and her sister states . . . from perceived encroachment thereon by the federal government . . . .” It was later revealed that the Sovereignty Commission employed private investigators to collect information on civil rights activists, which was used to harass them and civil rights activities. (see May 13)
FREE SPEECH

March 29 Peace Love Activism

March 29, 1960: the New York Times carried a full-page advertisement titled "Heed Their Rising Voices" which solicited funds to defend Martin Luther King, Jr. against an Alabama perjury indictment. The advertisement described actions against civil rights protesters, some of them inaccurately, some of which involved the police force of Montgomery, Alabama. Referring to the Alabama State Police, the advertisement stated: "They have arrested [King] seven times..." However, at that point he had been arrested four times. Although the Montgomery Public Safety commissioner, L. B. Sullivan, was not named in the advertisement, the inaccurate criticism of actions by the police was considered defamatory to Sullivan as well, due to his duty to supervise the police department. (BH, see Apr 1; FS, see April 19)
Police dogs
March 29, 1961: a policeman ordered his dog to attack an demonstrator who was too slow in obeying his order to move away from in front of police court, shortly before nine African-American college students went on trial for sitting-in at a white city library in Jackson, Mississippi. (see Apr 6)
Twenty-third Amendment
March 29, 1961: The Twenty-third Amendment to the US Constitution ratified, allowing Washington, DC residents to vote in presidential elections. (see August 22, 1978)

The amendment had been rejected by Arkansas. The following nine states did not vote to ratify the amendment. (January 24, 1961)
  • Florida
  • Kentucky
  • Mississippi
  • Georgia
  • Louisiana
  • South Carolina
  • North Carolina
  • Texas
  • Virginia
SOUTH AFRICA/APARTHEID
March 29, 1961: Nelson Mandela and his co-defendants were acquitted of treason. Fearing he will be arrested again, Mr. Mandela went underground. (see Dec 16)
Malcolm X
March 29, 1964: Malcolm X spoke at an Organization of Afro-American Unity rally at the Audubon Ballroom, Washington Heights, NYC. He spoke specifically regarding Black Nationalism. (BH, see Mar 30; Malcolm X, see April 12)

Viola Liuzzo

March 29 Peace Love Activism

March 29, 1965: the NAACP sponsored a memorial service for Viola Liuzzo at the People's Community Church in Detroit. Fifteen hundred people attended, among them, Rosa Parks. (see March 30)

March 29 Music et al

Road to Bethel and the Woodstock Festival
March 29, 1969: Michael Lang had found a suitable site in Saugerties, NY right off the NY Thruway. On this date, John Roberts and Joel Rosenman met with a Mr Holmes, the lawyer for the site’s owner, Mr Shaler. The lawyer emphatically told Roberts and Rosenman that the site was not for rent for such a purpose. (see March 30) (follow link above for full timeline)
Blood, Sweat and Tears
March 29 – April 4, 1969:  the Blood, Sweat, and Tears’ Blood, Sweat, & Tears Billboard #1 album. It received a Grammy Award for Album of the Year in 1970. (see July 26)

March 29 Peace Love Activism

Vietnam

My Lai Massacre

March 29 Peace Love Activism

March 29, 1971: Lt. Calley was found guilty of premeditated murder of 22 civilians and sentenced to life in prison. This sentence was extremely controversial and generates a widespread public outcry, as an overwhelming majority of Americans believe that Calley was simply following orders, and condemned the fact that one soldier was serving as the army's scapegoat. Draft board members resign, veterans turn in their medals, and the "Free Calley" movement was born. Georgian governor Jimmy Carter asked his constituency to drive for a week with their lights on in protest, and flags are flown at half-mast in the state of Indiana. (My Lai, see Apr 1; Vietnam, see Apr 1)
U.S. combat troops left South Vietnam
March 29, 1973: two months after the signing of the Vietnam peace agreement, the last U.S. combat troops left South Vietnam as Hanoi freed the remaining American prisoners of war held in North Vietnam ending  America's direct eight-year intervention in the Vietnam War. In Saigon, some 7,000 U.S. Department of Defense civilian employees remained behind to aid South Vietnam. Of the more than 3 million Americans who had served in the war, almost 58,000 died, and over 1,000 were missing in action. Some 150,000 Americans were seriously wounded. (see August 15, 1973)

Charles Manson

March 29 Peace Love Activism

March 29, 1971, a jury in Los Angeles recommended the death penalty for Charles Manson and three followers [Susan Atkins, Patricia Krenwinkel, and Leslie Van Houten} for the 1969 Tate-La Bianca murders. (The sentences were later commuted.) (see Apr 19)

Native Americans

Wounded Knee II
March 29, 1973: a cease-fire between Indians holding Wounded Knee and the Government forces surrounding the historic Indian site entered its third day this afternoon as Government negotiators tried to set up a meeting tomorrow to resolve the month-long impasse. (see Native Americans, April 18, 1973)

AIDS

Ryan White

March 29 Peace Love Activism

March 29, 1990: several months before his high school class graduated and before his senior prom, White entered Riley Hospital for Children in Indianapolis with a respiratory infection. (see April 8)

Women’s Health

James Charles Kopp

March 29 Peace Love Activism

March 29, 2001: French authorities arrested James Charles Kopp, the assassin of Dr  Barnett Slepian, in the town of Dinan, Brittany. (see May 9, 2003)

Environmental Issues

Pegasus Pipeline
March 29, 2013: the Pegasus Pipeline spill happened and resulted in Canadian heavy crude being released into the community of Mayflower, Arkansas, flowing through yards and streets. Oil entered a creek, wetlands and a cover at Lake Conway. (EI, see January 10, 2014; Mayflower, see April 22, 2015)

March 29 Peace Love Activism, March 29 Peace Love Activism, March 29 Peace Love Activism, March 29 Peace Love Activism, March 29 Peace Love Activism, March 29 Peace Love Activism, March 29 Peace Love Activism, March 29 Peace Love Activism, March 29 Peace Love Activism, March 29 Peace Love Activism, March 29 Peace Love Activism, March 29 Peace Love Activism, 

March 28 Peace Love Activism

March 28 Peace Love Activism

Immigration History

U.S. v. WONG KIM ARK
March 28, 1898: in  U.S. v. WONG KIM ARK the Supreme Court ruled that a child born in the US to Chinese immigrants was a US citizen and could not be deported under the terms of the Chinese Exclusion Act. (see March 3, 1903)

Nuclear/Chemical News

Cold War

March 28 Peace Love Activism

March 28, 1946: the State Department released the so-called Acheson-Lilienthal Report, which outlined a plan for international control of atomic energy. The report represented an attempt by the United States to maintain its superiority in the field of atomic weapons while also trying to avoid a costly and dangerous arms race with the Soviet Union.  (Red Scare, see Nov 6; NN, see July 25)
Three Mile Island

March 28 Peace Love Activism

March 28, 1979: Three Mile Island power plant, Pennsylvania. A cooling malfunction caused a partial meltdown in one reactor, resulting in a limited release of radioactivity (INES Level 5). The site's first reactor (TMI One) on the Susquehanna river was closed for refuelling. The second was at full capacity when two malfunctions occurred: first there was a release of radioactive water, then radioactive gas was detected on the perimeter. No deaths or injuries were reported. It is considered the United States' worst nuclear accident and led to major safety changes in the industry. (see June 18)

for expanded information, see

March 28 Music et al

Fear of Rock
March 28, 1955: from the NY Times: Memphis, Tennessee. The City Censor Board has banned the movie “Blackboard Jungle,” Chief Censor Llyd Binford said today. (see May 17)
Roots of Rock
March 28, 1958: during the opening night of a tour promoted by DJ Alan Freed, Jerry Lee Lewis involved in a dispute with Chuck Berry over the line-up. Enraged that he had not been chosen to perform last, Lewis torches his piano during his set-closing number, "Great Balls of Fire." (see Mar 31)
FREE SPEECH
March 28, 1961: NYC Park Commissioner, Newbold Morris, notified his staff to limit permits issued for musical performances in Washington Square to boniafide artistic groups. He also asked the police to issue summonses to guitarists, bongo drummers, and folk singers who do not have permits. (see Apr 9) (see New York City Bans Folk Music for full story)
Pirate Radio
March 28, 1964: with the increasing popularity of the Beatles and other similar bands plus the lack of airplay for them on the British Broadcasting System’s radio stations, Radio Caroline, the first so-called pirate radio station, began to broadcast off the coast of England from a ship. The combination of rock music and lively disk jockey patter played to a huge audience, but well out of reach of British authorities. (see Apr 4) (see Pirate Radio for full story)
John Lennon and Nilsson
March 28, 1974: the Troubadour incident (see John Lennon Meets Brandy Alexander) was a wake-up call for Lennon and Nilsson. Lennon soon announced he would produce Nilsson’s next album, ‘Pussy Cats.’ They decided that the LP’s musicians should live together during the sessions. Lennon and Nilsson, along with Ringo Starr and Keith Moon, moved into a Santa Monica beach house.

On March 28, Stevie Wonder and Paul McCartney unexpectedly joined Lennon, Nilsson and others for a midnight jam. Ringo had left, so McCartney sat in on drums and sang harmony to Lennon’s lead vocals. Lennon also played guitar with Wonder on electric piano. Despite the star-studded lineup, standards like ‘Lucille’ and ‘Stand By Me,’ marred by technical problems, were disappointing.

By evening’s end, Lennon and McCartney agreed to see each other again but it would be the last time the two ex-Beatles would play together in a studio. (see Aug 31)

BLACK HISTORY

Jeremiah Reeves
March 28, 1958: Alabama executed Reeves (see November 10, 1952). He was 22. He had spent much of his time in prison writing poetry and he willed his final poem to his mother. (see Apr 6)
Murders of Three Civil Rights Workers
March 28, 1966: in U. S. vs. Price et al, the Supreme Court overruled Cox and reinstated the indictments (BH, see, Apr 21; Murders, see October 7, 1967)
MLK, Jr & US Labor History

March 28 Peace Love Activism

March 28, 1968: Martin Luther King Jr., Ralph Abernathy and James Lawson led a march of sanitation workers in Memphis, Tenn. More than 1,300 workers had gone on strike because the city had refused to recognize their union. In response, the city had hired strikebreakers. As the march moved down Beale Street, some broke windows and looted. The march quickly ended, and King vowed to have a nonviolent march April 5. King didn't live to see that day. (BH, see “in April”; Memphis, see May 16; LH, see July 1)
Black Panthers

March 28 Peace Love Activism

March 28, 1972: Fleeta Drumgo and John Cluchette, the two surviving Soledad Brothers, were acquitted. They had been charged with killing a white guard at Soledad Prison in 1970. The third Soledad Brother, George Jackson, was killed in August 1971, in alleged escape attempt. (see June 4)
STAND YOUR GROUND LAW & Trayvon Martin Shooting

March 28 Peace Love Activism

March 28, 2012: Rep. Bobby Rush, D-Ill., taking off his jacket to wear a a hoodie and sunglasses as he spoke on the floor of the House. Rush donned a hoodie during the speech on the House floor deploring the killing of Florida teenager Trayvon Martin and received a reprimand for violating rules on wearing hats in the House chamber. (see April 7)
Stop and Frisk Policy & Fourth Amendment
March 28, 2012: the ACLU filed a federal lawsuit accusing the NYC Police Department of illegally stopping tens of thousands of people in privately owned buildings across the city where officers had been given permission to enter by landlords. The suit claims that residents and their guests are subject to arbitrary enforcement practices that violate antidiscrimination provisions of the federal Fair Housing Act, as well as their Fourth Amendment rights against unreasonable search and seizure. (S & F, see Mar 30; 4th, see May 24, 2013)
James C. Anderson
March 28, 2012: Dylan Butler, 20, Deryl Dedmon, 19, and John Aaron Rice, 19, all of Brandon, Miss., admitted to conspiring to commit and committing a hate crime, as well as to a months-long campaign of terror against Blacks that began in April 2011 and culminated June 26 in the death of James Craig Anderson. Dedmon received two life sentences on the state charges. He and his co-conspirators faced up to five years in prison on the federal conspiracy charge, and could receive life sentences on the hate crime federal charge. (BH, see April; JCA, see Dec 4)

Vietnam

The Phoenix

March 28 Peace Love Activism

March 28, 1967: The Phoenix, a private U.S. yacht with eight American pacifists aboard, arrived in Haiphong, North Vietnam, with $10,000 worth of medical supplies for the North Vietnamese. The trip, financed by a Quaker group in Philadelphia, was made in defiance of a U.S. ban on American travel to North Vietnam. No charges were filed against the participants and the group later made a second trip to North Vietnam. (see April 4)
March 28 Peace Love Activism

Native Americans

Wounded Knee
March 28, 1973: the media reported that one hundred of the Indians holding the historic hamlet of Wounded Knee offered to surrender but hard-core dissidents, vowing to die, were keeping them in the village at gunpoint. (see Native Americans, March 29, 1973)

SOUTH AFRICA/APARTHEID

Nelson Mandela
March 28, 1982: Mandela and four other A.N.C. leaders were transferred from Robben Island to Pollsmoor Prison in the suburbs of Cape Town. While many believe the move was intended to lessen the influence of the famous prisoners, government officials later say they wanted a way to open a discreet line of communication with the men. (SA/A, see October 16, 1984; Mandela, see February 10, 1985)

LGBTQ

Judge Connie Wilkerson
March 28, 2002: in Mississippi, the "George County Times" published a letter from George County Justice Court Judge Connie Wilkerson which read, in part, "In my opinion, gays and lesbians should be put in some type of mental institution." Because of the bias expressed in such a statement, an ethics violation complaint was filed against Wilkerson, but the State Supreme Court, in a 5-2 decision, decided not to hold Wilkerson accountable for his opinion. (see January 2003)
Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr
March 28, 2014: US Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr. said that the federal government would recognize more than 300 same-sex marriages that were performed in Michigan last weekend. Gov. Rick Snyder, a Republican that they were “legal and valid marriages” but that the state would not recognize them until the court resolved the matter.

                Mr. Holder’s announcement capped a week of rapid change and uncertainty over the status of same-sex marriage in Michigan. On March 21, a federal judge struck down the state’s ban on same-sex marriage, and the next morning gay and lesbian couples rushed to exchange vows. By late that afternoon, however, an appeals court stayed the judge’s ruling. While the appeals played out, the legal status of those unions was uncertain. (see Apr 28)

US Labor History

Foxconn

March 28 Peace Love Activism

March 28, 2012: Apple Inc's Tim Cook, on his first trip to China as the chief executive officer, visited an iPhone production plant run by the Foxconn Technology Group, which was being accused of improper labor practices.(see Mar 29)

March 28 Peace Love Activism, March 28 Peace Love Activism, March 28 Peace Love Activism, March 28 Peace Love Activism, March 28 Peace Love Activism, March 28 Peace Love Activism, March 28 Peace Love Activism, March 28 Peace Love Activism, March 28 Peace Love Activism,