March 26 Peace Love Activism

March 26 Peace Love Activism

Immigration History

Naturalization Law of 1790
March 26, 1790: Naturalization Law of 1790 provided the first rules to be followed by the United States in the granting of national citizenship. This law limited naturalization to immigrants who were "free white persons" of "good moral character". It thus left out American Indians, indentured servants, slaves, free blacks, and later Asians. While women were included in the act, the right of citizenship did "not descend to persons whose fathers have never been resident in the United States...." Citizenship was inherited exclusively through the father. (see June 25, 1798)

Anarchism

Immigration History

March 26 Peace Love Activism

March 26, 1910: an amendment to the Immigration Act of 1907 passed Congress. The 1910 Act, while not changing the language excluding anarchists, streamlined the methods of prosecution and deportation of excludable aliens, forbidding any anarchists into the U.S. (Anarchism, see Dec 17; Immigration, see May 3, 1913)
Emma Goldman

March 26 Peace Love Activism

March 26 – April 4, 1933: the New York World published a series of controversial articles by Goldman exposing the harsh political and economic conditions in Russia. (see January 1934)

BLACK HISTORY

SCOTTSBORO BOYS
March 26, 1931: a crowd gathered around the Scottsboro jail to lynch the nine youths. Sheriff Matt Wann telephoned Governor Benjamin M. Miller who then called in the National Guard to protect the jail before taking the defendants to Gadsden, Alabama for indictment and to await trial. (SB, see April 6)
NAACP
May 26, 1956: Alabama authorities tried to shut down the NAACP, obtaining an order from Circuit Judge Walter B. Jones that prohibited the organization from operating in the state. After the NAACP refused to turn over membership lists, Jones found the organization in contempt and fined it $100,000. He had suggested to Alabama Attorney General John Patterson that the state prosecute the NAACP for failing to register as an out-of-state corporation. The U.S. Supreme Court later threw out the fine and ruled in the NAACP's favor (see June 1, 1964)
Tallahassee bus boycott
May 26, 1956: a bus boycott began in Tallahassee, Fla., after Florida A&M students Wilhelmina Jakes and Carrie Patterson refused to give up their seats to white passengers. The next night, a cross was burned outside the home of Jakes and Patterson. On Jan. 3, 1957, a federal judge ruled bus segregation laws unconstitutional. Four days later, Tallahassee's city commission repealed its segregation clause. (see June 5) 
Autherine Lucy
March 26 Peace Love Activism
Autherine Lucy
March 26, 1957: Autherine Lucy Foster decided not to pursue further her fight to re-enter the University of Alabama. (Black History, see Apr 14; U of A, see Aug 11, 1963)
Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X

March 26 Peace Love Activism

March 26, 1964: Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X met for the only time — a brief encounter in Washington, D.C. (BH, see Mar 30; MLK, see Oct 14; X, see Mar 29)

March to Montgomery

March 25, 1965:  the end of the march by 25,000 civil rights supporters from Selma to Montgomery after four days and nights on the road under the protection of Army troops and federalized Alabama National Guardmen. They were refused permission to give a petition to Governor Wallace which said: "We have come not only five days and 50 miles but we have come from three centuries of suffering and hardship. We have come to you, the Governor of Alabama, to declare that we must have our freedom NOW. We must have the right to vote; we must have equal protection of the law and an end to police brutality."

                During the rally that followed Wallace's refusal Martin Luther King Jr. stated "We are not about to turn around. We, are on the move now. Yes, we are on the move and no wave of racism can stop us."  The speech became known as the “How long? Not Long” speech or as, “Our God is Marching On.” (BH & March, see March 25; MLK, see Mar 30)
Clarence David Stallworth

March 26 Peace Love Activism

March 26, 1966: the Southern Courier, a newspaper documenting the civil rights movement, reported that, after driving in Beatrice, Alabama, Clarence David Stallworth was beaten and pistol-whipped by a group of whites that included the town mayor.

While Mr. Stallworth, a black man, was driving through the town, a white man in another car signaled for him to stop, saying that the passenger in the white man’s car wanted to speak with him. When Stallworth stopped his car and walked around to the passenger side of the other vehicle, Mayor T.A. Black got out and hit him in the head with a pistol while the other men in the car exited and began kicking and beating Stallworth. After the attack, Stallworth was refused medical treatment from several different hospitals before finally being admitted to a hospital in Montgomery, more than eighty miles away.

Members of the black community rallied to force County Probate Judge David Nettles to sign the warrants for the arrest of the men involved in the attack. Nettles initially refused, but relented after organizers threatened to initiate a mass protest in support of Stallworth.

“I honestly feel that I am committing a wrong here,” Nettles said when contemplating authorizing the arrests of the men who had beaten Mr. Stallworth. “[But] I'll sign that warrant tomorrow.” (see Mar 28)
J.W.  Rich
March 26, 2003: J.W. Rich, convicted in the slaying of a Johnnie Mae Chappell said he had nothing to do with the shooting. J.W. Rich  told the Florida Times-Union police threatened to kill him if he didn't confess.

Rich, 60 and suffering from cancer, said he didn't know about the Chappell slaying until about five months later, when two detectives came to his house and told him they had a warrant for his arrest. (see June 6)
Florida Legislature apologized
March 26, 2008:   more than 140 years after a former Florida governor described Africans as "a wild barbarian to be tamed and civilized," the Florida Legislature apologized for the state's role in sanctioning slavery.

The House and Senate approved a resolution expressing "profound regret for the involuntary servitude of Africans, and calling for reconciliation among all Floridians." There was no discussion before the unanimous voice votes, but the reading of the resolution, which described how slaves' ears were nailed to posts during whippings brought some lawmakers, including Black Democratic Tampa Sen. Arthenia Joyner, to tears. Gov. Charlie Crist visited the Senate chamber to watch the vote. In the House, Speaker Marco Rubio, R-West Miami, took the unusual step of ordering all members to their seats. And in a rare appearance, Senate President Ken Pruitt, R-Port St. Lucie, sat at Rubio's side. "This was as sincere and as meaningful an apology as could be given," Pruitt said. "It was important for the words to stand on their own." (see Sept 9)

FREE SPEECH

Authors League of America
March 26, 1948: the Authors League of America and the American Booksellers Association issued a protest of two raids, in which the Philadelphia Police Department’s vice squad stormed bookstores and seized about 2,000 books that authorities alleged were “salacious.” The books included the The Wild Palms by William Faulkner, who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1949, and Tobacco Road by Erskine Caldwell. (see July 20)
Lady Chaterley’s Lover
March 26, 1960: the decision of Judge Bryan that Lady Chaterley’s Lover be allowed all the privileges of the mail was upheld in Grove Press, Inc. v. Christenberry (FS, see Mar 29)

Cold War

Owen Lattimore

March 26 Peace Love Activism

March 26, 1950: during a radio broadcast dealing with a Senate investigation into communists in the U.S. Department of State, news was leaked that Senator Joseph McCarthy had charged Professor Owen Lattimore with being a top spy for the Soviet Union.

Lattimore was a scholar of Chinese history. During World War II, President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed him as a special representative to the Nationalist Chinese government of Chiang Kai-Shek. His troubles began after the war, when it became apparent that Chiang's government would fall to the communist forces of Mao Zedong. When China fell to the communists in 1949, shocked Americans looked for scapegoats to blame for the debacle. Individuals such as Lattimore, who had been unremitting in their criticism of Chiang's regime, were easy targets.

All charges were also eventually dropped for lack of evidence, but Lattimore's career had been severely damaged. (see Apr 10)

Technological Milestone

Jonas E. Salk

March 26 Peace Love Activism

March 26, 1953:  Dr. Jonas E. Salk, announced a vaccine had been used safely and successfully in preliminary trials on 90 children and adults as a polio vaccine, two years later the vaccine was released and given to every child in the United States. (see Mar 27)

Roots of Rock

Dance With Me Henry
March 26, 1955: re-recorded with "toned-down" lyrics by the white pop singer Georgia Gibbs’s "Dance With Me Henry (Wallflower)" entered the pop charts setting off a dubious trend known as "whitewashing." For its time, the mid-1950s, the lyrical phrase "You got to roll with me, Henry" was considered risqué just as the very label "rock and roll" was understood to have a sexual connotation. The line comes from an Etta James record originally called "Roll With Me Henry" and later renamed "The Wallflower." Already a smash hit on the Billboard Rhythm and Blues chart, it went on to become a pop hit in the spring of 1955, but not for Etta James. (see July 29)

Voting Rights

Baker v. Carr
March 26, 1962: Baker v. Carr, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case that retreated from the Court's political question doctrine, deciding that redistricting (attempts to change the way voting districts are delineated) issues presented justiciable questions, thus enabling federal courts to intervene in and to decide redistricting cases. The defendants unsuccessfully argued that redistricting of legislative districts is a "political question", and hence not a question that may be resolved by federal courts. (see January 23, 1964)

Vietnam

see Women Strike for Peace for more

March 26 Peace Love Activism

March 26, 1969: Women Strike for Peace demonstrated in Washington, D.C., in the first large antiwar demonstration since President Richard Nixon's inauguration in January. The antiwar movement had initially given Nixon a chance to make good on his campaign promises to end the war in Vietnam. However, it became increasingly clear that Nixon had no quick solution. As the fighting dragged on, antiwar sentiment against the president and his handling of the war mounted steadily during his term in office. (see April)
Vietnam Veterans Memorial
March 26, 1982: the ground-breaking for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial was held in Washington, DC. (see Nov 10)
March 26 Peace Love Activism

INDEPENDENCE DAY

March 26 Peace Love Activism

March 26, 1971: Bangladesh declared independent of Pakistan. (Bangladesh, see Aug 1; ID, see Aug 15)

LGBTQ

National Gay Task Force

March 26 Peace Love Activism

March 26, 1977: The National Gay Task Force met with aides to President Jimmy Carter at the White House. This meeting was the first time lesbian and gay activists had ever been invited to the White House to discuss policy issues related to homosexuality. President Jimmy Carter was at Camp David when the meeting occurred, but he had called for an end to discrimination against homosexuals during the 1976 presidential election campaign, on May 21, 1976. He was the first candidate of a major political party ever to publicly support lesbian and gay rights.

Midge Costanza, director of the Office of Public Liaison in the White House arranged the meeting. (LGBTQ, see June 7; Carter, see June 18)
US Supreme Court
March 26, 2013: the US Supreme Court began hearing an historic oral argument on marriage, which could lead to any one of a wide array of possible decisions -- from essentially leaving in place the traditional marriage laws on the books in most states to proclaiming same-sex marriage a fundamental right under the US Constitution. Although the justices are deciding a constitutional question -- whether the Equal Protection Clause in the Fourteenth Amendment includes a right for same-sex couples to marry -- the argument is taking place as polls indicated that public opinion is shifting toward acceptance of same-sex marriage. (see April 19)
Mike Pence
March 26, 2015: Indiana Gov. Mike Pence (R) signed a law that allowed any individual or corporation to cite religious beliefs as a defense when sued by a private party. (see Mar 31)

Jack Kevorkian

March 26, 1999: Kevorkian convicted of second-degree murder for giving a lethal injection to an ailing man whose death was shown on "60 Minutes." (see Apr 13)

Affordable Care Act

March 26 Peace Love Activism

March 26, 2012: opening arguments presented at the Supreme Court re the 2010 health care law. (see June 28)

Fourth Amendment

Florida v. Jardines
March 26, 2013: Florida v. Jardines. The United States Supreme Court held that police use of a trained detection dog to sniff for narcotics on the front porch of a private home was a "search" within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution, and therefore, without consent, requires both probable cause and a search warrant. (see May 24)

US Labor History

Student Rights

March 26 Peace Love Activism

March 26, 2014: Peter Ohr, the regional director of the National Labor Relations Board ruled that a group of Northwestern football players were employees of the university and had the right to form a union and bargain collectively.

For decades, the major college sports had functioned on the bedrock principle of the student-athlete, with players receiving scholarships to pay for their education in exchange for their hours of practicing and competing for their university. But Ohr tore down that familiar construct in a 24-page decision.

He ruled that Northwestern’s scholarship football players should be eligible to form a union based on a number of factors, including the time they devote to football (as many as 50 hours some weeks), the control exerted by coaches and their scholarships, which Mr. Ohr deemed a contract for compensation.

It cannot be said that the employer’s scholarship players are ‘primarily students,’ ” the decision said. (Student rights, see Sept 17; Labor, see Dec 29; Northwestern, see August 17, 2015)

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