March 2 Peace Love Activism

March 2 Peace Love Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Ban the importation of slaves
March 2, 1807: Congress approved a bill to ban the importation of slaves into the United States. President Jefferson signed the bill into law on March 3. 

The act took effect on January 1, 1808, and provided that violators were to be fined up to $2000 or imprisoned. The act was poorly enforced; the government often refused to allow the British Royal Navy to search and seize American slave ships and rarely imposed serious punishments against captains, officers, and owners of slave ships participating in illegal slave trading. Consequently, Africans continued to be smuggled into the country, but in smaller numbers. In the two decades following the ban, approximately 10,000 enslaved Africans were brought to the Gulf region, compared to the 73,000 enslaved Africans who arrived in the United States between 1801 and 1808. Mobile, Alabama, holds the distinction of being the port of entry for the last cargo of African slaves kidnapped and brought into the United States in 1859.

                The act did not hinder the domestic sale of slaves within the United States and it failed to provide a remedy for illegally trafficked Africans. It freed them from the control of the smuggler but left their fates to the mercy of the state where the ship docked which, in most cases, condemned them to slavery. Slavery would not be legally abolished until the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution on December 6, 1865. (see January 1, 1808)
Claudette Colvin

March 2 Peace Love Activism

March 2, 1955:  nine months before the Rosa Parks arrest, 15-year-old Claudette Colvin boarded a city bus after school to head home. As it filled up, a white woman was left standing, and the bus driver ordered the 15-year-old Colvin to get up and move to the back. She refused, police were called. They dragged Colvin off the bus in handcuffs.

      In a 2013 interview, Colvin stated, “I tell—one of the questions asks, "Why didn’t you get up when the bus driver asked you, and the policemen?" I say, "I could not move, because history had me glued to the seat." And they say, "How is that?" I say, "Because it felt like Sojourner Truth’s hands were pushing me down on one shoulder and Harriet Tubman’s hands were pushing me down on another shoulder, and I could not move. And I yelled out, ’It’s my constitutional rights,’" because I wasn’t breaking a law under the state’s law, separate but equal; I was sitting in the area that was reserved for black passengers. At that time, we didn’t even want to be called "black," because black had a negative connotation. We were called "coloreds." So I was sitting in the coloreds’ section. But because of Jim Crow law, the bus driver had police force, he could ask you to get up. And the problem was that the white woman that was standing near me, she wasn’t an elderly white woman. She was a young white woman. She had a whole seat to sit down by—opposite me, in the opposite row, but she refused to sit down; because of Jim Crow laws, a white person couldn’t sit opposite a colored person. And a white person had to sit in front of you. The purpose was to make white people feel superior and colored people feel inferior”. (see March 18) (also see Claudette Colvin for more)
Alabama State College
March 2, 1960: Alabama State College expelled the nine student leaders of the March 1 courthouse sit-in.

                More than 1000 students immediately pledged a mass strike, threatened to withdraw from the school, and staged days of demonstrations; 37 students were arrested. Montgomery Police Commissioner L.B. Sullivan recommended closing the college, which he claimed produced only "graduates of hate and racial bitterness." Meanwhile, six of the nine expelled students sought reinstatement through a federal lawsuit.(BH, see Mar 7; ASC, see Aug 4)
Segregated bus seating
March 2, 1962: U.S. District Court Judge William Bootle ruled that the segregated bus seating laws were unconstitutional, and ordered the Bibb Transit Company to comply with his judgment. Two days later the Macon bus boycott ended. (see Mar 27)

Native Americans

Indian Appropriations Bill
March 2, 1889: Congress passed the Indian Appropriations Bill, proclaiming unassigned lands in the public domain. An amendment by Illinois Representative William McKendree Springer authorized President Benjamin Harrison to open two million acres in the Oklahoma Territory for settlement. (see Apr 22).
Fishing rights

March 2 Peace Love Activism

March 2, 1964: The Puyallup Tribe and the National Indian Youth Council challenged limitations on Native-American fishing rights in the state of Washington by engaging in what was called a “fish-in.” The famous actor Marlon Brando was arrested during the protest. Brando later refused to accept his Academy Award for his performance in The Godfather on March 27, 1973, in protest of the treatment of Native-Americans, both in society at large and in Hollywood movies. (see March 8)
Wounded Knee II

March 2 Peace Love Activism

March 2, 1973: federal forces surround Wounded Knee, South Dakota, which the American Indian Movement were holding hostages. (see Mar 7)

Immigration History

Feminism

March 2 Peace Love Activism

March 2, 1907: The Expatriation Act, which became law on this day, contained a provision that stripped the citizenship from U.S. women who married foreign nationals. This provision was repealed by the Cable Act on September 22, 1922.

                During the Cold War, in the case of Trop v. Dulles (March 3, 1958), the Supreme Court ruled that it is unconstitutional for the government to revoke the citizenship of a U.S. citizen as a form of punishment.  (F, see “in 1908; IH, see March 26, 1910)
Jones-Shafroth Act

March 2 Peace Love Activism

March 2, 1917: just before the US entry into World War I, President Wilson signed the Jones-Shafroth Act, under which Puerto Rico became a U.S. territory and Puerto Ricans were granted statutory citizenship, meaning that citizenship was granted by an act of Congress and not by the Constitution (thus it was not guaranteed by the Constitution). (see May 19, 1921)

                The act also created a bill of rights for the territory, separated its government into executive, legislative and judicial branches, and declared Puerto Rico's official language to be English. The Bill furthermore constructed a government and bill of rights for the island and allowed its residents to serve in the U.S. military. (see October 3, 1965) (see October 16, 1918)
Japanese Internment Camps
March 2, 1942: General John L. DeWitt ordered evacuation from most of California, western Oregon and Washington, and southern Arizona. A few Germans, Italians, and other Caucasians were evacuated, but only the people of Japanese ancestry were moved en masse. (see Mar 18)

US Labor History

March 2, 1913: postal workers granted 8-hour day. (see Mar 4)

Fourth Amendment

March 2, 1925: Carroll v. United States. The US Supreme Court upheld that the warrantless search of an automobile. It is known as the automobile exception.

                George Carroll and John Kiro were arrested for the transportation of alcohol in violation of the Volstead Act  and subsequently convicted. In a 6-2 decision, Chief Justice William H. Taft rejected the argument that there was no basis to search their car and that the resulting evidence should have been excluded from trial. This case made a distinction between a person's dwelling and a moving vehicle, holding that such a distinction was consistent with Fourth Amendment guarantees. (see June 27, 1949)

Vietnam

Ho Chi Minh

March 2 Peace Love Activism

March 2, 1946: Ho Chi Minh elected President of Vietnam. (see Mar 6)
Operation Rolling Thunder
March 2, 1965: Operation Rolling Thunder began as over 100 American fighter-bombers attacked targets in North Vietnam. Scheduled to last eight weeks, Rolling Thunder will instead go on for three years. (Vietnam, see March 8; Rolling Thunder, see Nov 1, 1968)
RFK’s three-point plan
March 2, 1967: Senator Robert Kennedy (D-New York) proposed a three-point plan to help end the war. The plan included suspension of the U.S. bombing of North Vietnam and the gradual withdrawal of U.S. and North Vietnamese troops from South Vietnam with replacement by an international force. Secretary of State Dean Rusk rejected Kennedy's proposal because he believed that the North Vietnamese would never agree to withdraw their troops. (see Mar 25)

March 1 Music et al

March 2 – 22, 1963: “Walk Like a Man” by the Four Seasons #1 on the Billboard Hot 100. It was their 3rd #1 hit. The song "Walk Like a Man" is part of the The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll list.

March 2 – April 5, 1968: Paul Mauriat and His Orchestra’s Blooming Hits is the Billboard #1 album

LGBTQ

Wisconsin
March 2, 1982: Wisconsin becomes the first U.S. state to outlaw discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. (see August 3)
R. Albert Mohler, Jr
March 2, 2007: evangelical R. Albert Mohler, Jr., PhD, president of the Southern Baptist Theological stated:  "If a biological basis [for homosexuality] is found, and if a prenatal test is then developed, and if a successful treatment to reverse the sexual orientation to heterosexual is ever developed, we would support its use as we should unapologetically support the use of any appropriate means to avoid sexual temptation and the inevitable effects of sin...

                “Christians must be very careful not to claim that science can never prove a biological basis for sexual orientation. We can and must insist that no scientific finding can change the basic sinfulness of all homosexual behavior. The general trend of the research points to at least some biological factors behind sexual attraction, gender identity, and sexual orientation. This does not alter God’s moral verdict on homosexual sin (or heterosexual sin, for that matter), but it does hold some promise that a deeper knowledge of homosexuality and its cause will allow for more effective ministries to those who struggle with this particular pattern of temptation." (see March 30)
Nebraska’s gay marriage ban
March 2, 2015: U.S. District Judge Joseph Bataillon blocked Nebraska's gay marriage ban and the attorney general's office immediately appealed the decision to the 8th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals. The American Civil Liberties Union of Nebraska sued the state in November on behalf of seven same-sex couples challenging the ban, which passed with the approval of 70 percent of voters in 2000. In addition to prohibiting gay marriage, the ban also forbids civil unions and legalized domestic partnerships.

                Same-sex couples miss out on medical and financial benefits that are available to heterosexual married couples, Bataillon said in issuing the injunction, which takes effect March 9.

                "All of the plaintiffs have further demonstrated psychological harm and stigma, on themselves and on their children, as a result of the non-recognition of their marriages," he said in his 34-page ruling. "The plaintiffs have been denied the dignity and respect that comes with the rights and responsibilities of marriage." (see Mar 2)
Alabama Supreme Court
March 2, 2015: the Alabama Supreme Court ordered probate judges around the state to stop issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples, ruling in direct opposition to a federal judge that the state’s ban on same sex marriage did not violate the United States Constitution.

                In a 7-to-1 decision, the court ruled that “Alabama law allows for ‘marriage’ between only one man and one woman,” and that the state’s probate judges “have a ministerial duty not to issue any marriage license contrary to this law.”

                While the court found that the state’s probate judges were not legally bound by the multiple rulings by a Federal District Court judge, Callie V. S. Granade, in favor of same-sex marriage, it also delivered a long and forceful rebuttal of her decision and the findings of federal judges across the country on same-sex marriage.

                 “Government has an obvious interest in offspring and the consequences that flow from the creation of each new generation, which is only naturally possible in the opposite-sex relationship, which is the primary reason marriage between men and women is sanctioned by state law,” the court ruled. (see Mar 17)

AIDS

March 2, 1985: the federal government approved a screening test for AIDS that detected antibodies to the virus, allowing possibly contaminated blood to be excluded from the blood supply. (see June 30)

Bailout

March 2 Peace Love Activism

March 2, 2009: failing insurance giant AIG reports nearly $62 billion in losses during the fourth quarter of 2008, and the US government gave it $30 billion more in aid in a new bailout.

FREE SPEECH

Westboro Baptist Church
Free Speech
Snyder v. Phelps

March 2 Peace Love Activism

March 2, 2011: Snyder v. Phelps. On March 3, 2006, U.S. Marine Lance Corporal Matthew A. Snyder was killed in a non-combat-related vehicle accident in Iraq. On March 10, 2006 Westboro Baptist Church (WBC) picketed Snyder's funeral in Westminister, Maryland, as it had done at thousands of other funerals throughout the U.S. in protest of what they considered America's increasing tolerance of homosexuality. Picketers displayed placards such as "America is doomed", "You're going to hell", "God hates you", "Fag troops", "Semper fi fags" and "Thank God for dead soldiers".[3] Members of the Patriot Guard Riders, a group of motorcyclists who separate WBC protesters from those who attend military funerals, were present in support of the Snyder family.[4] WBC published statements on its website that denounced Albert Snyder and his ex-wife for raising their son Catholic, stating they "taught Matthew to defy his creator", "raised him for the devil", and "taught him that God was a liar".

                Albert Snyder, Matthew Snyder's father, sued Fred Phelps, Westboro Baptist Church and two of Phelps's daughters, Rebekah Phelps-Davis and Shirley Phelps-Roper, for defamation, intrusion upon seclusion, publicity given to private life, intentional infliction of emotional distress and civil conspiracy

                In an 8–1 decision (with the judges ruling the same way as they did in United States v. Stevens in 2010), the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Phelps, upholding the Fourth Circuit's decision. Chief Justice John Roberts (as in the Stevens case) wrote the majority opinion stating "What Westboro said, in the whole context of how and where it chose to say it, is entitled to 'special protection' under the First Amendment and that protection cannot be overcome by a jury finding that the picketing was outrageous." (see Mar 2)
March 2 Peace Love Activism

DEATH PENALTY

March 2, 2015: citing concerns about the drug to be used in a lethal injection, corrections officials in Georgia postponed the execution of the state's only female death row inmate for the second time in a week.

                The execution drug was sent to an independent lab to check its potency and the test came back at an acceptable level, but during subsequent checks it appeared cloudy, Georgia Department of Corrections spokeswoman Gwendolyn Hogan said. Corrections officials called the pharmacist and decided to postpone Kelly Renee Gissendaner's execution "out of an abundance of caution," she said. No new date was given. (see Mar 19)

Stop and Frisk Policy

March 2, 2015: New York City cops were given new step-by-step instructions on how to conduct stop and frisks, as well as when it should be applied. The new guidelines were sparked by federal Judge Shira Scheindlin’s August 2013 ruling that the NYPD’s stop-and-frisk tactics violated the rights of minorities.

                The updated rules hammer home the point that cops can’t stop-and-frisk people for merely making “furtive movements,” such as reaching for their waistband or acting nervous, or for being in a high-crime area — reasons that were allowed in the past.

                Cops were also barred from stopping people because of race or if a person “matches a generalized description of a crime suspect, such as an 18- to 25-year-old black male.” Stop-and-frisks must be based on “more than a mere suspicion. (see Mar 19)

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Hidden Years Music Archive Project

Hidden Years Music Archive Project

The Hidden Year Music Archive Project (HYMAP) is an archival project based at the Documentation Centre for Music (DOMUS), Stellenbosch University, South Africa. This collection contains irreplaceable material documenting the popular music scene in South Africa between 1960 and 2005. The bulk of the material was collected by David Marks, owner of the 3rd Ear Music Company, and also includes various collections donated to him. Marks recorded wherever he went and has subsequently built up a vast collection of over 175 000 items representing concerts, events, theatre productions, political meetings and music festivals throughout sub-Saharan Africa. The collection was recently relocated from Durban to Stellenbosch. The aim of this project is to unpack, sort and catalogue this archive in order to make it accessible for national as well as international scholars.

Nowhere has the history of popular music existed in quite so bizarre a climate as that of South Africa during its ‘internal exile’ & it’s ‘international isolation’ – its hidden years. Much of our music past, like that of our political past, is hard to access. Just as people & books were banned & censored – no reasons given – so too were some musicians & their music. Most of the recordings restricted or avoided by the SABC were not even political. The Government at the time would claim that it was the artist, who by reflecting & questioning their racist policies, were the ones threatening the order, safety & security of the State.

Despite their popularity & their influence – attracting large crowds to concerts on campus, in townships & to the odd mixed club – without commercial industry support – many of these musicians remain ignored by the mainstream industry today. Our aim is to network with other music collectors & researchers – to acknowledge the contributions made by these musicians to our Hidden History …paying tribute to them by simply making their music available.

3eM are in the process of restoring, cataloguing & transferring the analogue archives (tapes, posters & photos) into a digital format – music & events that weren’t restricted to a particular commercial fashion, form or style. The archive tapes are fading & deteriorating as fast as the musicians that we believe should not be forgotten – simply because they never made hit records.

With today’s technology most of the ‘desk mix’ recordings that we have stored in the archives could be restored. It would be a sad irony indeed if the security establishment – who used all the tricks in their dirty book to prevent local musicians from being heard – were to now have the last laugh. Contributions would be greatly appreciated – anecdotes, suggestions, manuscripts, material, equipment, funds…


The Curious Beauty of African Music is that it uplifts as it tells a sad tale. You may be poor, you may have only a ramshackle house, you may have lost your job, but song gives you hope. African Music is often about aspirations of African people, and it can ignite the political resolve of those who might otherwise be indifferent to politics. One merely has to witness the infectious singing at rallies. Politics can be strengthened by music, but music has a potency that defies politics.
(Nelson Mandela)