February 28 Peace Love Activism

February 28 Peace Love Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Slave Revolts
February 28, 1708: seven white people were killed in Newton, Long Island. Following the rebellion, two black male slaves and an Indian slave were hanged, and a black woman was burned alive. In 1709 a plot involving enslaved Indians as well as Africans spread through at least three Virginia counties—James City, Surry, and Isle of Wight. Of the four ringleaders, Scipio, Salvadore, Tom Shaw, and Peter, all but Peter were quickly jailed. (see April 20 (Easter), 1710)
Republican Party

February 28 Peace Love Activism

February 28, 1854: about 50 slavery opponents met in Ripon, Wis., to call for creation of a new political group that became the Republican Party. (see Apr 29)
Detroit rebellion
February 28, 1943: the Detroit rebellion occurred. At 9 a.m Black renters, having signed leases and paid their rent, attempted to enter their homes. Many  left the area fearing trouble.

                Fighting began when two blacks in a car attempted to run through the picket line. Clashes between white and Black groups continued into the afternoon when 16 mounted police attempted to break up the fighting. Tear gas and shotgun shells were used. Officials announced an indefinite postponement of the move. Detroit newspapers, union leaders, and many other whites campaigned for the government to allow the Black workers to move into the homes.

                In April, 1,100 city and state police officers and 1,600 Michigan National Guard troops were mobilized and sent to the area to allow the renters to enter homes. (see Apr 17)

February 28, 1946: (see Feb 26 & 27 for preceding story) Columbia, Tennessee policemen killed two black prisoners in custody. During an interrogation of James Johnson, William Gordon, and Napoleon Stewart, the police reported that two of the prisoners grabbed guns from white officers and began shooting. In defense, the police retaliated, killing two and wounding the third suspect.

                A federal grand jury was convened to investigate the charges of misconduct by the white policemen, but the local all-white jury absolved the police of any wrong doing. Eventually, twenty-five blacks were tried in for the shootings of the white officers during the riot. Two of the accused were found guilty but were never retried due to lack of evidence. The one valid conviction came in a second trial at Columbia in November. Lloyd Kennedy was found guilty and served time in jail for shooting at a white highway patrolman. (BH, see Apr 18; RR, see Aug 10)
Ben Chester White

February 28 Peace Love Activism

February 28, 2003: on June 10, 1966 three Klansmen had approached Ben Chester White at his home near Natchez, Mississippi and asked for him help in finding a lost dog. White, a 67-year old sharecropper, was then driven to the Homochitto National Forest, where they shot White repeatedly, then dumped over him over a bridge into a creek bed below. Three men, Ernest , Claude Fuller, and James Lloyd Jones, had allegedly killed White in an attempt to lure Martin Luther King, Jr. to Natchez, Mississippi.  Ernest Avants was tried in 1967 but acquitted.

In 2003, the New York Times described Chester this way: Ben Chester White used twists of wire to hold the soles on his shoes, patched his own clothes with scrap and said "yes, sir," to white men, and when he made a little money, he wrapped the $1 bills in wax paper so they would not be ruined by his own sweat. He was not registered to vote, and had never fought against the segregation that was as much a fact of life for him as a hoe handle or cotton sack. 

On this date, because Homochitto National Forest was federal property,  the federal government could retry Ernest Avents for White's murder. Allan Kornblum, the FBI agent who investigated the crime in 1967 testified that Mr. Avants said that his lawyer had told him that he would not be convicted in that case:
‘Because you can’t be convicted of killing a dead man.’ ”

‘Yeah, I shot that nigger,’ ” Mr. Kornblum said Mr. Avants told him. But Mr. Avants said that by the time he shot Mr. White, another man had shot Mr. White several times — investigators have said about 16 times — with an automatic carbine.

‘I blew his head off with a shotgun,’ ” Mr. Avants told him, Mr. Kornblum said. But by then, Mr. Avants told him that day, there was no life left in Mr. White.

”It’s been 37 years,” said Paige Fitzgerald, a trial lawyer with the United States Department of Justice. ”How do you remember?”

Mr. Kornblum answered, ”It’s one of those singular events in a person’s life…It’s burned in my memory,”

At that time, Agent  Kornblum was legal adviser to the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court and had a national security clearance that is higher than top secret. (see March 1)

Native Americans

February 28 Peace Love Activism

February 28, 1877: the US Congress ratified the Manypenny Agreement with the Lakota Sioux, under which the United States took control of 900,000 acres of the Black Hills.

                The Lakota argue to this day that the Agreement was illegal, was obtained by coercion associated with starvation, and that the Black Hills should be returned to them. (see May 5)

US Labor History

February 28, 1898: Holden v. Hardy, the Supreme Court of the United States upheld a Utah state law limiting the number of work hours for miners and smelters as a legitimate exercise of the police power. The majority held that such a law was legitimate, provided that there was indeed a rational basis, supported by facts, for the legislature to believe particular work conditions were dangerous. The court was quick to distinguish this case from other cases of the era which imposed universal maximum hour rules, which it held unconstitutional under the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment. (see April 29, 1899)

Technological Milestone

February 28 Peace Love Activism

February 28, 1953:  Cambridge University scientists James D. Watson and Frances H.C. Crick announced that they had determined the double-helix structure of DNA, the molecule containing human genes. (see March 26)

February 28 Music et al

The Beatles

February 28 Peace Love Activism

February 28, 1964: despite the arrival of “Beatlemania” Time magazine featured musician Thelonious  Monk on its cover reflecting the continued importance and popularity of jazz in the US. (see Mar 21)
The Road to Bethel and the Woodstock Festival
February 28, 1969: Joel Rosenman, John Roberts, and Michael Lang signed the contract creating Woodstock Ventures and its plan for 1) a recording studio in Woodstock, NY and 2) a festival in Saugerties, NY. Artie Kornfeld could not sign the contract because he was still under contract with with Capital. Michael Lang agreed to hold Kornfeld’s share until the Capitol contract expired. (see March 29)

Irish Troubles

 February 28 Peace Love Activism

February 28, 1985:  the Provisional Irish Republican Army carried out a mortar attack on the Royal Ulster Constabulary police station at Newry, killing 9 officers in the highest loss of life for the RUC on a single day. (see Nov 15)
February 28 Peace Love Activism
The Cold War &  Nuclear/Chemical Weapons News
February 28, 1987:  in a surprising announcement, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev indicated that the USSR was ready to sign "without delay" a treaty designed to eliminate U.S. and Soviet medium-range nuclear missiles from Europe. (CW, see June 12; NN, see Nov 24)

Bosnia and Herzegovina

February 28, 1994, US F-16s shot down 4 Serbian J-21s over Bosnia and Herzegovina for violation of the Operation Deny Flight and its no-fly zone.

Pledge of Allegiance

February 28, 2003: the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, which ruled that the addition of "under God" to the The Pledge of Allegiance was unconstitutional, refused to reconsider its ruling, saying it would be wrong to allow public outrage to influence its decisions. (see March 4)

Iraq War II

February 28, 2006:  The Washington Times reported that the Bush administration never drew up a comprehensive plan for rebuilding Iraq after the March 2003 invasion. (see March 19)

Feminism

February 28 Peace Love Activism

February 28, 2013: after the House plan endorsed by conservatives was defeated, the House or Representatives gave final approval to a renewal of the Violence Against Women Act, sending a bipartisan Senate measure to President Obama. (see March 13)

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February 29 Peace Love Activism

February 29 Peace Love Activism

BLACK HISTORY

Hattie McDaniel
February 29, 1940:  the daughter of slaves, African-American actress Hattie McDaniel won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her role as Mammy in the classic film Gone With the Wind. She was the first African-American to win an Oscar. Her acceptance speech acknowledged the racial significance of her winning the Oscar. At the awards ceremony at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, however, she was forced to sit in the back of the room at a separate table from the white attendees. (see Apr 7)

Autherine Lucy
February 29, 1956: Autherine Lucy and her attorneys had filed suit against the University to have her suspension overturned. On this date US District Judege W. Hobart Grooms ordered her re-admittance, but school trustees permanently expelled her for “false, defamatory, impertinent and scandalous charges” against school officials. (Black History, see March; U of A, see Jan 18, 1957)
Brown v Board of Education
February 29, 1956:  the Mississippi legislature unanimously adopted an “interposition” resolution that declared “invalid” the Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education, which ruled racially segregated schools unconstitutional. After the resolution was passed, members of the House of Representatives stood and sang Dixie.

Interposition is a legal theory that was advanced in southern states before the Civil War, holding that states would “interpose” their authority between themselves and the federal government. A related theory was “nullification,” which held that states could nullify federal laws and court decisions. In his famous 1963 “I Have a Dream” speech, Rev. Martin Luther King referred to segregationists with their “lips dripping with nullification and interposition.” By the time Mississippi passed its resolution, similar resolutions had been passed in Georgia, Alabama, Virginia, and South Carolina. The doctrines of nullification and interposition, however, had little effect on the course of the civil rights movement. (BH, see “in March” ; Nullification, see September 12, 1958)
Alabama Governor John Patterson
February 29, 1960: Alabama Governor John Patterson held a news conference to condemn the sit-in by the six Alabama State College students.  Patterson, who was also chairman of the State Board of Education, threatened to terminate Alabama State College's funding unless it expelled the student organizers and warned that "someone [was] likely to be killed" if the protests continued. (BH, see Mar 1, ASC, see Mar 1)
Kerner Report
February 29, 1968: The Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders or Kerner Report was released. Its finding was that the riots resulted from black frustration at lack of economic opportunity. The report's most infamous passage warned, "Our nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white—-separate and unequal." [PDF of report (BH, see Mar 8; RR, see April 9)
February 29 Peace Love Activism
 Stop and Frisk Policy

February 29 Peace Love Activism

February 29, 2012: The New York City Council introduced a package of police reform bills to bring greater accountability to the NYPD, in particular the NYPD's stop-and-frisk practices. (see March 22)

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February 27 Peace Love Activism

February 27 Peace Love Activism

Feminism

Voting Rights
February 27, 1922: in Leser v. Garnett the US Supreme Court held, that the Nineteenth Amendment to the US  Constitution had been constitutionally established. (Feminsim, see Sept 22; VR, see March 7, 1927)

US Labor History

Woolworth’s

February 27 Peace Love Activism Feminism

February 27, 1937: four hundred fifty Woolworth’s workers and customers occupied a store in Detroit for eight days in support of Waiters and Waitresses Union. (see Mar 1)
Sit-down strikes

February 27 Peace Love Activism Feminism

February 27, 1939: the Supreme Court, in National Labor Relations Board v. Fansteel Metallurgical Corp., effectively outlawed sit-down strikes. (see June 5)
Montana Coal and Iron Company

February 27 Peace Love Activism Feminism

February 27, 1943: an explosion at the Montana Coal and Iron Company mine killed 74 workers. It was the worst mining disaster in Montana's history. The small communities of Washoe and Bearcreek, Montana, consisted almost entirely of mine workers and their families. Many of them worked Smith Mine #3 for the Montana Coal and Iron Company. On a cold Saturday morning, February 27, 77 men were working in the mine when, at 9:30 a.m., a huge explosion rang out. The people of Washoe and Bearcreek heard the roar and then the long, wailing siren that followed. The exact cause of the explosion is not known, though some of the company's miners claimed methane gas had built up in some abandoned shafts and was ignited after a cave-in. Of the 77 workers in the mine at the time of the explosion, only three made it out alive. (see May 31)

BLACK HISTORY

Detroit

February 27 Peace Love Activism Feminism

February 27, 1943: with a cross burning in a field near the homes, 150 angry whites picketed the a Detroit housing project vowing to keep out any Black homeowners. (see Feb 28)
Wharlest Jackson

February 27 Peace Love Activism Feminism

February 27, 1967: the Armstrong Tire & Rubber plant in Natchez, Tennessee had offered Wharlest Jackson a promotion to its chemical mixing plant. Jackson had worked at the plant for 12 years and was also the treasurer of the local NAACP chapter. 

On February 27, 1967, as Jackson was driving home from work, a bomb exploded in his 1958 Chevrolet truck, killing him instantly. The Natchez Police Department arrived on the scene and found Jackson’s truck blown to bits – the blast blew out the top of the truck, the front and rear glass, both doors and the hood.

The Natchez community was shocked and appalled by Jackson’s murder. Charles Evers and the Natchez NAACP organized a protest, leading 2,000 demonstrators to watch the changing of the shift at the Armstrong plant. From the Armstrong plant, the demonstrators marched to the place where Jackson died, and then to Rosehill Baptist Church, where they had an hour-long meeting. Even Governor Paul Johnson, infamously hostile to the NAACP, called Jackson’s murder “an act of savagery which stains the honor of our state.”

After Jackson’s death, the FBI launched an intensive probe that it quickly expanded to include other Klan-related murders and crimes. Investigators speculated that Jackson was a victim of the Silver Dollar Group, a violent, heavily armed cell of the Ku Klux Klan. The Silver Dollar Group had about 20 members, each of whom carried a silver dollar minted in the year he was born as evidence of membership in the cell. Several members had experience with explosives. The FBI identified Raleigh Jackson “Red” Glover, the leader of the Silver Dollar Group, as the primary suspect in both the Jackson and Metcalfe bombings.

 No one was ever been convicted for the crime. (see March 2)

February 27 Music et al

February 27 – March 19, 1961: “Pony Time” by Chubby Checker #1 Billboard Hot 100.

Vietnam

President Ngo Dinh Diem
February 27, 1962: South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem survived another coup attempt when Republic of Vietnam Air Force pilots Lieutenants Pham Phu Quoc and Nguyen Van Cu tried to kill him and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu by bombing and strafing the presidential palace. Lieutenant Quoc was arrested after his fighter-bomber crash-landed near Saigon. Lieutenant Cu fled to Cambodia, where he remained until November 1963. (see Aug 22)
Walter Cronkite
February 27, 1968: the well-respected CBS TV news anchorman Walter Cronkite, who had just returned from Saigon, told Americans during his CBS Evening News broadcast that he was certain "the bloody experience of Vietnam was to end in a stalemate." (see March 14)

STUDENT ACTIVISM

February 27 Peace Love Activism Feminism

February 27, 1969: police charged student picket lines, club and arrested two Chicano leaders at U.C. Berkeley; thousands rampage thru nine buildings at U of Wisconsin, Madison over black enrollments. (Vietnam, see March; SA, see April)
Religion and Public Education

February 27 Peace Love Activism Feminism

February 27 – 28, 1963:  Abington School District v. Schempp argued before the US Supreme Court In her opening statement Madalyn Murray, an atheist, said, in part:

                "Your petitioners are atheists and they define their beliefs as follows. An atheist loves his fellow man instead of god. An atheist believes that heaven is something for which we should work now – here on earth for all men together to enjoy. An atheist believes that he can get no help through prayer but that he must find in himself the inner conviction and strength to meet life, to grapple with it, to subdue it, and enjoy it. An atheist believes that only in a knowledge of himself and a knowledge of his fellow man can he find the understanding that will help to a life of fulfillment. He seeks to know himself and his fellow man rather than to know a god. An atheist believes that a hospital should be built instead of a church. An atheist believes that a deed must be done instead of a prayer said. An atheist strives for involvement in life and not escape into death. He wants disease conquered, poverty vanquished, war eliminated. He wants man to understand and love man. He wants an ethical way of life. He believes that we cannot rely on a god or channel action into prayer nor hope for an end of troubles in a hereafter. He believes that we are our brother's keepers and are keepers of our own lives; that we are responsible persons and the job is here and the time is now." (see June 17, 1963)

Native Americans

Russell C Means

February 27 Peace Love Activism Feminism

February 27, 1973: members of the Lakota Sioux tribe on the Pine Ridge reservation attempted to have Dick Wilson, the Bureau of Indian Affairs-backed head of the tribal administration, impeached, they received resistance from the federal government, which wanted to keep Wilson in power. Led by leader Russell Means, AIM seized control of Wounded Knee (site of the 1890 massacre) and the perimeter is placed under siege for 71 days.  (see March 2)

Sexual Abuse of Children

Rev. Bruce Ritter

February 27 Peace Love Activism Feminism

February 27,1990: the Rev. Bruce Ritter, celebrated leader of Covenant House for teen runaways, stepped down amid a scandal. He denied an accusation of molestation from one youth, but others step forward to accuse him and the Covenant House board reports extensive misconduct. Ritter's Franciscan superiors in Rome approved a transfer to India, but outrage following a news report about the move forces the plan to be scrapped. (see 1991)
National Review Board

February 27 Peace Love Activism Feminism

February 27, 2004: the National Review Board, a lay panel formed by Catholic bishops, issued two studies documenting the molestation problem. One ws the first church-sanctioned tally of abuse cases, finding 10,667 abuse claims against about 4 percent of all American clerics from 1950 to 2002. The second report puts much of the blame on American bishops for not cracking down on errant priests. (see July 1)

Environmental Issues

February 27 Peace Love Activism Feminism

February 27, 1990: Exxon and its shipping company were indicted on 5 criminal counts for the Exxon Valdez oil spill. (see March 19)

IRAQ War I

February 27, 1991: President George H. W. Bush announced a ceasefire and that Kuwait had been liberated from Iraqi occupation. (see Mar 17)

FREE SPEECH & The Red Scare

February 27, 1997: Frank Wilkinson, once banned from speaking at the University of North Carolina, returned to Chapel Hill to speak at the UNC Law School. (FS, see December 23, 2003;  RS, see March 21, 1999)

LGBTQ

Kentucky
February 27, 2014: U.S. District Court Judge John Heyburn ordered Kentucky officials to recognize the marriages of same-sex couples performed out of state.

                Heyburn ruled that Kentucky's Constitution and laws banning recognition of such marriages "violate the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution, and they are void and unenforceable." The decision amounted to a final ruling of his Feb. 12 opinion in the case.

                Attorney Dan Canon, a lawyer for the four gay and lesbian couples who won the case, said: "We are cautiously optimistic. The order has been granted without qualification and without a stay."
Walt Disney World
February 27, 2014: Walt Disney World announced that it would no longer subsidize local chapters of the Boy Scouts of America, in response to the national organization's continued ban on allowing LGBTQ troop leaders. (LGBTQ,see Mar 14; BSA, see May 20)

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