January 26

January 26

US Labor History

January 26

January 26, 1897: the Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America was chartered by the American Federation of Labor to organize "every wage earner from the man who takes the bullock at the house until it goes into the hands of the consumer."  
Student Rights
January 26, 2014: members of the Northwestern University football team announced they were seeking union recognition. A majority signed cards, later delivered to the National Labor Relations Board office in Chicago, asking for representation by the College Athletes Players Association.

BLACK HISTORY

Dyer Anti-Lynching bill
(follow link for more:  Dyer Anti-Lynching bill)

January 26, 1922: after a prolonged fight, the House passed the Dyer Anti-Lynching bill by a vote of 230 to 119.
Baconsfield Park

January 26

January 26, 1970:  in 1911, United States Senator Augustus O. Bacon executed his will, devising to the City of Macon, Georgia, “a park and pleasure ground” for whites only. He explained that “in limiting the use and enjoyment of this property perpetually to white people, I am not influenced by any unkindness of feeling . . . I am, however, without hesitation in the opinion that in their social relations the two races . . . should be forever separate.”

                Baconsfield Park opened in 1920 as a large and lush recreation space. As trustee of the park, the City of Macon honored Senator Bacon’s wishes and for decades operated it as a “whites only” facility. That changed in 1963 when the city determined that, as a public entity, it could no longer constitutionally enforce segregation. Disgruntled, Baconsfield’s Board of Managers sued to remove the City of Macon as trustee and preserve the park as one for white residents only.

In May 1963, black citizens intervened, filing a lawsuit challenging Baconsfield’s racial restriction as a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. However, in February 1964, the City of Macon resigned as trustee; several months later the court appointed three private individuals as new trustees, and the racial segregation policy continued.

                Black residents appealed to the United States Supreme Court. In January 1966, the Court held in Evans v. Newton that Baconsfield could no longer be operated on a racially discriminatory basis: “the public character of this park requires that it be treated as a public institution subject to the command of the Fourteenth Amendment, regardless of who now has title under state law.” Rather than integrate, however, the Georgia Supreme Court responded by terminating the Baconsfield trust and closing the park to the public altogether.

                Black residents of Macon again appealed to the United States Supreme Court, contending the state court’s action violated the Fourteenth Amendment, but on January 26, 1970, in Evans v. Abney, the Court upheld the Georgia Supreme Court’s order, writing: “When a city park is destroyed because the Constitution requires it to be integrated, there is reason for everyone to be disheartened.” Baconsfield Park remained closed and is now a strip mall; Georgia’s Bacon County is named for Senator Bacon. 

Religion and Public Education

January 26, 1946: McCollum v. Board of Education—a  three-judge Circuit Court refused to ban non-sectarian classes in religious education from the public schools of Champaign.

Music et al

January 26

January 26 - 27, 1960: Wes Montgomery records “The Incredible Jazz Guitar of Wes Montgomery” [Airegin] Critic Chris May of All About Jazz wrote "The Incredible Jazz Guitar burst onto the US scene in 1960 like a benign hurricane, and it still sounds like a gale almost 50 years later....”

January 26, 1962:  Catholic Church Bishop Joseph A. Burke in Buffalo, NY banned the The Twist, from being heard or danced to at any area Catholic school or event. The announcement on this day was one of many in the early years of rock and roll in which authority figures were convinced that the music would undermine public morals. 

January 26 – February 8, 1963: “Walk Right In” by The Rooftop Singers #1 on the Billboard Hot 100. The song was a country blues song written by Gus Cannon and originally recorded by Cannon's Jug Stompers in 1929.

                Trivia: the song has been covered by others, among whom was a French singer: Claude François. It was not a big hit for him. Another song of his (Comme d’habitude) became a hit in 1967. Paul Anka heard the song while in Paris and got the rights to the song, re-wrote the lyrics, and the song became, My Way and made famous by Frank Sinatra in 1969.

January 26, 2000: Rage Against the Machine played in front of Wall Street, prompting an early closing of trading due to the crowds.

Space Race

January 26

January 26, 1962: the United States launched Ranger 3 to land scientific instruments on the moon — but the probe ended up missing its target by more than 22,000 miles.

Fourth Amendment

January 26, 1971: in United States v. Sinclair  US District Judge Damon Keith ruled that Nixon's Attorney General John N. Mitchell had to disclose the transcripts of illegal wiretaps that Mitchell had authorized without first obtaining a search warrant. The Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit upheld Keith's decision.  

Vietnam

January 26, 1972: Radio Hanoi announced North Vietnam's rejection of the latest U.S. peace proposal. Revealing more details of the secret Paris peace talks, Henry Kissinger responded publicly, condemning the North Vietnamese announcement and criticizing Hanoi's nine-point counter-proposal, which had been submitted during the secret talks.

                Kissinger took exception with the communist insistence on the end of all U.S. support for the South Vietnamese government. The communists maintained that "withdrawal" meant not only withdrawal of U.S. troops, but also the removal of all U.S. equipment, aid, and arms in the possession of the South Vietnamese army. Kissinger asserted that the abrupt removal of all U.S. aid would guarantee the collapse of the Saigon regime. 
January 26

The Cold War

January 26, 1980: at the request of President Jimmy Carter, the U.S. Olympic Committee voted to ask the International Olympic Committee to cancel or move the upcoming Moscow Olympics. The action was in response to the Soviet military invasion of Afghanistan the previous month. 
Nuclear news
January 26, 1992: Boris Yeltsin announced that Russia would stop targeting cities of the US and her allies with nuclear weapons. In return George H. W. Bush announced that the US and her allies would stop targeting Russia and the remaining communist states.

Feminism

January 26, 2005: Condoleezza Rice became the second woman and the first African American woman to be sworn in as Secretary of State.

LGBTQ

January 26, 2012: The Maine Freedom to Marry Coalition delivered more than 105,000 signatures to the Secretary of State to place a citizen's initiative on the November 2012 ballot. The measure would allow same-sex couples to receive a marriage license while also protecting religious freedom. Maine was the first state to proactively seek to win the freedom to marry at the ballot. 

January 26 Music et al

January 26 Music et al

I Should Have Moved the Dial Sometimes
Listening to the so-called underground FM rock in the late 60s exposed me to a greater variety of music than had I continued listening to Top Ten AM radio stations, but even FM rock was light on the amazing music that jazz artists made. For me, Hendrix and Clapton were THE guitarists. How could anyone surpass either of them?

I should have moved the FM dial a bit and found a jazz station where I certainly would have listened mouth-agape to Wes Montgomery. It certainly was not the Purple Haze or White Room I was familiar with, but my my my!

January 26 Music et al

On January 26 & 28, 1960 Wes Montgomery recorded “The Incredible Jazz Guitar of Wes Montgomery” at Reeves Sound Studios in New York City. The four musicians needed only two day to record all that music.
  • Wes Montgomery- electric guitar
  • Tommy Flanagan – piano
  • Percy Heath – bass
  • Albert Heath – drums
All About Jazz  critic Chris May wrote "The Incredible Jazz Guitar burst onto the US scene in 1960 like a benign hurricane, and it still sounds like a gale almost 50 years later....”

Take a listen to the album's opening cut "Airegin"

Fear of Rock
January 26, 1962:  Catholic Church Bishop Joseph A. Burke in Buffalo, NY banned the The Twist, from being heard or danced to at any area Catholic school or event. The announcement on this day was one of many in the early years of rock and roll in which authority figures were convinced that the music would undermine public morals.

Rooftop Singers, “Walk Right In”

January 26 – February 8, 1963: “Walk Right In” by The Rooftop Singers #1 on the Billboard Hot 100. The song was a country blues song written by Gus Cannon and originally recorded by Cannon's Jug Stompers in 1929.

Trivia: the song has been covered by others, among whom was French singer Claude François. It was not a big hit for him.,, 

...but another song of Claude François (Comme d’habitude) became a hit for him in 1967.

The very roughly translated lyrics of  "As Usual" for the first verse are:
I get up and jostle you
You do not wake up as usual
I raise the sheet
I’m afraid you’re cold as usual
My hand caresses your hair
Almost in spite of myself as usual
But you turn your back on me
As usual

Paul Anka heard the song while in Paris,  got the rights, and re-wrote the lyrics.  The song became, My Way.

January 26 Music et al
Wall Street Meets Rage Against the Machine

January 26, 2000: Rage Against The Machine was in New York Cityto shoot the video for its new single, with activist film director Michael Moore.

The band set up and shot the clip in front of Federal Hall in downtown Manhattan, drawing a crowd of several hundred people, according to a representative for the city's Deputy Commissioner for Public Information.

After shooting the video, Rage, Moore, and a camera crew attempted to walk into the New York Stock Exchange, located across the street from Federal Hall.

New York Stock Exchange security officers denied their entrance (as was protocol)  and suggested that they head over to the publically accessible Visitor's Center instead.

The band  got into a shouting match with the security officers, but the band and crew left. Police did not arrest anyone.

January 26 Music et al, January 26 Music et al, January 26 Music et al

Dyer Anti-Lynching bill

Dyer Anti-Lynching bill

BLACK HISTORY

Abraham Lincoln’s Republican Party

Dyer Anti-Lynching bill

Abraham Lincoln's Republican Party casts a long shadow in American history. While today's GOP does not emphasize inclusion in its platform, for decades after the Civil War Lincoln's party tried to give actual freedom to the legally freed Black population in the southern States. The Democratic party in those states gradually regained control, created Black Codes, and became an increasingly important piece of the national Democratic party's evolving success.

On the face of it, introducing a bill in the early 20th century that made lynching a federal crime seems a sure thing. 

It was not.

Leonidas C. Dyer

Dyer Anti-Lynching bill

Missouri's Leonidas C. Dyer served 11 terms in the U.S. Congress as a from 1911 to 1933.  He had served in the Spanish-American War in 1898 entering as a private and rising to the rank of colonel. 

Dyer was both a Republican and a progressive, terms that today seem antithetical. The 1917 race riots in Missouri as well as the continual reports of lynchings in the south brought him to the point of introducing the Dyer Anti-Lynching Bill in April 1918 . 

It called for the prosecution of lynchers in federal court and that State officials who failed to protect lynching victims or prosecute lynchers could face five years in prison and a $5,000 fine. The victim’s heirs could recover up to $10,000 from the county where the crime occurred.

In 1920 the Republican Party supported such legislation in its platform from the National Convention.

Dyer Anti-Lynching bill

Here is a look at the long and frustrating path the bill took. Keep in mind that according to the site, Chestnutt Archieve, there had been thousands of lynchings that had taken place in the United States since 1882! Like police shootings today, there was no official record kept of such killings. More than 70% of the lynchings were done by Whites against Blacks. Those Whites lynched (also by Whites) were done typically when the White person was perceived as having aided a Black person in some way.
House Judiciary Committee
October 20, 1921: the House Judiciary Committee supported the bill. 

October 26, 1921: President Warren G. Harding spoke at the 50th Anniversary celebration of the founding of Birmingham, Alabama. Before a crowd of about 100,000 whites and African-Americans, he gave a strong civil rights message: “Let the black man vote when he is fit to vote; prohibit the white man voting when he is unfit to vote.” Reportedly his statement was greeted with complete silence.
Representative Finis Garrett of Tennessee
December 20, 1921: although outnumbered in the House membership by more than two to one, Democrats under the leadership of Representative Finis Garrett of Tennessee filibustered successfully against consideration of the Dyer Anti-Lynching bill. Republican floor leader, Rep Franklin Mondell, gave in to the filibuster and agreed to postpone debate on the the bill until after the Christmas holidays.

January 4, 1922: debate on the Dyer anti-lynching bill got under way in the House. Democratic House leader, Representative Garrett of Tennessee, spent three hours demanding roll calls in an attempt to postpone debate.

Dyer Anti-Lynching bill

January 26, 1922: after more than three weeks, the House passed the Dyer Bill by a vote of 230 to 119.
Senate Committee on the Judiciary
May 23, 1922: the Senate Committee on the Judiciary concluded that the Dyer Anti-Lynching bill was unconstitutional and for that reason should not be reported to the Senate.

June 14, 1922: Blacks from Washington, DC staged a silent parade to protest continued lynchings and in an effort to promote action by Congress on the Dyer anti-lynching bill before the Senate Judiciary Committee.

June 23, 1922: at its thirteen annual conference in Newark, the NAACCP pledged the Association membership to “punish” those who oppose the Dyer bill. “The Republican Party has always received the bulk of the negro vote; the Republican Party is in power; the Republican Party has promised by its platform and its President to pass the Dyer bill. Unless the pledge is kept we solemnly pledge ourselves to use every avenue of influence to punish the persons who defeat it. We will regard no man as our friend who opposes this bill.”

Dyer Anti-Lynching bill

June 30, 1922: the Senate Judiciary Committee, to the surprise of the Senate, voted 8 to 6 to favorably report the Dyer Anti-Lynching bill, which would permit the Federal Government to assume prosecution of lynchings when States fall or neglect to prosecute. It was fully understood that the Senate would allow this bill to die because it stirred up so much feeling during its progress in the House.

August 14, 1922: a delegation of Black women met with President Harding to urge final Congressional action on the Dyer Anti-Lynching bill. He expressed doubt about the bill’s passage.
National Equal Rights League
September 24, 1922: the National Equal Rights League sent a telegram to President Harding calling for a special session of Congress to act on the Dyer Anti-Lynching bill. Congress had adjourned without completing consideration of the bill.

November 4, 1922: the National Equal Rights League presented a petition signed by thousands of people from fifteen States calling for Congress to consider the Dyer Anti-Lynching bill.
Democrat filibuster
November 28, 1922: a Democrat filibuster completely deadlocked the US Senate as a result of the Republican attempt to have the Dyer Anti-Lynching bill made the unfinished business of the Senate. Senator Oscar Underwood, the Democratic leader, stated that the minority wold filibuster to the end of the session if necessary, adding that so long as the majority persisted in trying to bring the bill before the Senate the opponents of the bill would refuse to permit the consideration of any other legislation. 
Dyer Anti-Lynching bill lynched
December 2, 1922: the Republican caucus voted to drop the Dyer Anti-Lynching bill. Republican Senator Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts stated, “The conference was in session nearly three hours and discussed the question very thoroughly. Of course the Republicans feel very strongly, as I do, that the bill ought to become a law. The situation before us was this: Under the rules of the Senate the Democrats, who are filibustering, could keep up that filibuster indefinitely, and there is no doubt they can do so.

                An attempt to change the rules wold only shift the filibuster to another subject. We cannot pass the bill in this Congress and, therefore, we had to choose between giving up the whole session to a protracted filibuster or going ahead with regular business of the session....The conference decided very reluctantly that it was our duty to set aside the Dyer bill and go on with the business of the session.”
Lynchings continue

Dyer Anti-Lynching bill

July 13 1923: US House representative Leonidas Dyer of St Louis stated that he was not surprised at the acquittal of a George Barkwell at Columbia, Missouri on the charge of murder in connection with the lynching of James Scott, a Black. Dyer referred to statistics which, he said, showed that 3,824 lynchings had been recorded during the last thirty-five years and that in all those cases there had scarcely been a conviction.

August 24, 1923: a 34-year-old black farmhand Ben Hart was killed based on suspicion that he was a “Peeping Tom” who had that morning peered into a young white girl’s bedroom window near Jacksonville, Florida. According to witnesses, approximately ten unmasked men came to Hart’s home around 9:30 p.m. claiming to be deputy sheriffs and informing Hart he was accused of looking into the girl’s window. Hart professed his innocence and readily agreed to go to the county jail with the men, but did not live to complete the journey.

Shortly after midnight the next day, Hart’s handcuffed and bullet-riddled body was found in a ditch about three miles from the city. Hart had been shot six times and witnesses reported seeing him earlier that night fleeing several white men on foot who were shooting at him as several more automobiles filled with white men followed.

Police investigating Hart’s murder soon determined he was innocent of the accusation against him; he was at his home 12 miles away when the alleged peeping incident occurred.

Legacy

Other legislators proposed anti-lynching bills, but the powerful southern Democratic coalition in the Senate continued to bloc each bill.
On June 13, 2005, in a resolution the US Senate formally apologized for its failure to enact this and other anti-lynching bills "when action was most needed."

The resolution is the first time that members of Congress, who had apologized to Japanese-Americans for their internment in World War II and to Hawaiians for the overthrow of their kingdom, had apologized to African-Americans for any reason.