September 8 Peace Love Activism
September 8, 1945: U.S. troops land in Korea to begin their postwar occupation of the southern part of that nation, almost exactly one month after Soviet troops had entered northern Korea to begin their own occupation. Although the U.S. and Soviet occupations were supposed to be temporary, the division of Korea quickly became permanent. NYT article (see Nov 16)
September 8, 1954: the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization formed. It was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact. It was primarily created to block further communist gains in Southeast Asia. (see Nov 27)
September 8, 1959: in 1955, Clyde Kennard, a black U.S. Army veteran and Mississippi native, had attempted to enroll in Mississippi Southern College, an all-white public university in the city of Hattiesburg. Mr. Kennard's credentials met the criteria for admission, but his application was denied because he was unable to provide references from five alumni in his home county.
In December 1958, in a letter to a local newspaper, Mr. Kennard announced his intent to re-apply to the university. In response, the Mississippi Sovereignty Commission – a state agency formed to protect segregation – hired investigators to research Mr. Kennard's background and uncover details that could be used to discredit him; these attempts were unsuccessful. Soon after, Mr. Kennard withdrew his application after the governor of Mississippi personally requested that he do so.
On September 8, 1959, Mr. Kennard once again tried to apply for admission to Mississippi Southern College. In a letter written to the college's administration, he declared that, if again rejected, he would sue the University for denying him admission based on his race. After he unsuccessfully tried to register for courses on September 15, 1959, Mr. Kennard was charged with illegal possession of alcohol.
Despite this legal retaliation, Mr. Kennard continued his attempts to register at Mississippi Southern. In September of 1960, he was arrested and charged with assisting in stealing $25 worth of chicken feed from a local store. Although there was little evidence against him, an all-white jury convicted him of being an accessory to burglary, and he was sentenced to seven years in state prison. BH, see January 5, 1960; Kennard, see July 4, 1963)
James H Meredith
September 8, 1965: Columbia University Law School accepted Meredith. (BH, see Sept 24; Meredith, see June 5, 1966)
September 8, 1968: a jury deliberated for four days and in the end come up with a compromise verdict, convicting Huey Newton of voluntary manslaughter. He was acquitted of the assault charge and the kidnap charges were dropped. FBI director J. Edgar Hoover declared the Black Panther Party "greatest threat to the internal security of the country". (see Sept 28)
BLACK & SHOT
September 8, 2015: the city of Baltimore reached a $6.4 million settlement in a lawsuit filed by the family of Freddie Gray, the 25-year-old man black man who died in April after suffering a critical injury while in police custody. The settlement plan would go to the city's spending oversight board on the following day for formal approval, the mayor's office said. Gray's death triggered sometimes violent protests, accompanied by devastating looting and arson in Baltimore, and prompted a national outcry. It ultimately led to the firing of Police Commissioner Anthony Batts. (see Nov 15)
September 8, 1961: statistical evidence linking heavy smoking with heart disease was reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Drs. Daniel J Nathan and Dr. David M. Spain had studed 3,000 men. They found that for smokers of over 40 cigarettes daily and aged under 51 years, their chance of having coronary heart disease almost doubled. Further, among those studied that had coronary heart disease, 57% of heavy smokers suffered heart attacks, as compared to only 31% of light smokers. The doctors said it remained an "open question" whether the statistics were proof that heavy smoking was a cause of hardening of coronary arteries. Only a four-sentence article on page 3 appeared in the New York Times. (see January 11, 1964)
US Labor History
United Farm Workers
September 8, 1965: Filipino American grape workers walk out on strike against Delano, California, table and wine grape growers, protesting years of poor pay and working conditions. Latino farm workers soon joined them, and the strike and subsequent boycott lasted more than five years (see Sept 16, 1965)
September 8, 2015: another 16 New Jersey public worker unions asked the U.S. Supreme Court to consider whether the state's highest court erred by declaring a pension funding agreement between the state and employees unenforceable.
In a petition filed with the U.S. Supreme Court, lawyers for 16 labor groups — including the New Jersey Education Association, Communications Workers of America and the Policemen's Benevolent Association — argued that the New Jersey Supreme Court should have applied the protections of the federal Contract Clause to the deal.
Hetty Rosenstein, state director for the CWA, that the organizations will "leave no stone unturned."
"One way or another we will protect these pensions. We will never allow the state of New Jersey to destroy the pensions that 800,000 people depend on," she said. (see Dec 4)
September 8, 1966: the TV series "Star Trek" premiered on NBC. (see February 5, 1967)
September 8 Peace Love Activism
September 8, 1974: though never indicted of any crimes, Gerald Ford gave an unconditional pardon to Richard Nixon. [Ford's pardon proclamation] (see Oct 4)
Religion and Public Education
SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE
September 8, 1981: voters in the Clear Creek, Iowa, school district voted overwhelmingly on this day to reject a proposal to make the Bible a textbook in the district’s schools. The vote was 689 to 90. The Iowa Civil Liberties Union hailed the vote as a victory over “religious zealots.” (Religion, see January 6, 1983; Separation, see January 6, 1983)
Dissolution of Yugoslavia
September 8, 1991: the Republic of Macedonia becomes independent. (Yugo, see Oct 8; ID see Sept 9)
Iraq War II
September 8, 2006: a Senate report faulted intelligence gathering in the lead-up to the 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq. NYT article (see Nov 5)
September 8, 2010: Jones remained steadfast, claiming he has received more than 100 death threats and that he has begun carrying a pistol. That evening, Imam Muhammad Musri emerges from a meeting with Jones, saying he is hopeful Jones will change his mind. (see Sept 9)
Occupy Wall Street
September 8, 2011: “Chris” launched the Tumblr page, "We Are the 99 Percent," (see Sept 17)
Westboro Baptist Church
September 8, 2014: a new billboard with the message "Gods Loves Gays" debuted in Topeka, Kansas, the home city of the Westboro Baptist Church. "The Facebook God," a satirical Facebook page with more than 1.7 million "likes," raised more than $80,000 on the crowd-funding platform Indiegogo in order to mount the billboard. "This hate group goes around saying that God hates gay people," an animated depiction of God says in a YouTube video uploaded to the Indiegogo page. "Nonsense! I love gay people. These Westboro psychos protest at the funerals of soldiers, murdered children and more. How dare they!" (see March 24, 2016)
September 8, 2015: Kim Davis was released from jail on Tuesday but would not say whether she would begin issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples, was not at work the next day. A lawyer for Ms Davis, Mathew D Staver, said Ms. Davis would “return soon.”. After spending five nights in jail, he said, Ms Davis “needs some rest and time with the family.”
Ms. Davis spoke at a rally after she was ordered freed, saying: “I just want to give God the glory. His people have rallied, and you are a strong people.” Kim Davis has emerged as a heroine to religious conservatives.
The Federal District Court judge who ordered Ms. Davis detained, David L Bunning, said she could go free because her office was “fulfilling its obligation to issue marriage licenses to all legally eligible couples.” But he warned Ms Davis not to interfere “directly or indirectly, with the efforts of her deputy clerks to issue marriage licenses to all legally eligible couples.” (see Sept 14)
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